Scuba Diving

Abrolhos

Abrolhos Marine National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Abrolhos Marine National Park
Parque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos
Archipel de Abrolhos1.jpg
One of the islands of the Abrolhos Archipelago
Map showing the location of Abrolhos Marine National Park
Map showing the location of Abrolhos Marine National Park
Coordinates 17.971°S 38.700°WCoordinates17.971°S 38.700°W
Designation National park

The Abrolhos Marine National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos) is a national park that was established in 1983 covering most of the Abrolhos Archipelago area in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

 

Contents

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Location[edit]

The park was established on 6 April 1983. It covers about 91,300 hectares (226,000 acres).[1] It became part of the Central Atlantic Forest Ecological Corridor, created in 2002.[2] It is located off the southern coast of the Bahia in the north east of Brazil.[3] The islands are volcanic in origin.[4]

There are five islands in the Abrolhos archipelago but only one of them, Siriba, is open to visitors. A 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) trail runs round this island. Ilha Santa Bárbara is outside the park boundary.[3] It is under the jurisdiction of the navy, which maintains a navigation beacon there.[1] The other islands are Ilha Guarita, Ilha Redonda, Ilha Sueste.[3] The park also includes the Parcel dos Abrolhos, where typical coral formations of the region may be seen, and the Timbebas reef opposite the city of Alcobaça.[1]

Ecology[edit]

The waters are clear and there is great diversity of underwater flora and fauna, including flourishing coral formations. The island vegetation is mainly low, small plants such as grasses and herbs. Seabirds include the white bellied booby, terns, frigates, jays and woodpeckers.[4] Charles Darwin visited the archipelago in 1830 and was impressed by the variety of species, including birds, lizards and spiders.[1]

Ilha Guarita and Ilha Sueste are home to many seabirds. Frigate birds nest on the steep sides of Ilha Redonda, which is visited by loggerhead turtles for spawning in the summer. Diving along the reefs and the Rosalinda shipwreck is allowed, and humpback whales may be observed from boats.[3] Since 2003 the park has been an outpost of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve (RBMA: Reserva de Biosfera da Mata Atlântica). In 2010 it was recognized as a Ramsar Site.[1]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

Arraial do Cabo

Arraial do Cabo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

 

Arraial do Cabo
Municipality
300px
Nickname(s): The Diving Capital [1]
Arraial do Cabo is located in Brazil
Arraial do Cabo
Arraial do Cabo
Coordinates: 22°57′57″S 42°01′40″WCoordinates22°57′57″S 42°01′40″W
Country Brazil
State Rio de Janeiro
First Settled 1503 [2]
Elevated to District January 28, 1924 [3]
Emancipated from Cabo Frio May 13, 1985 [4]
Founded by Amerigo Vespucci [4]
Government[5]
 • Mayor Wanderson Cardoso de Brito (PMDB)
Area[3]
 • Total 160.286 km2 (61.887 sq mi)
  Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 27,715
 • Estimate (2013) 28,627
 • Density 170/km2 (450/sq mi)
  Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Demonym(s) cabista
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Website www.arraial.rj.gov.br


Arraial do Cabo is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Its population was 27,715 as of 2010 census and its total area is 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi). [3]

It was founded in 1503 by the conqueror Amerigo Vespucci. In 1960 a documentary film was made directed by Mário Carneiro and Paulo Cesar Saraceni about the local fishing industry.[6]

Its geography made Arraial do Cabo an important and dangerous point in the age of sail. Since the Portuguese Navy arrival (1503) until nineteenth century many shipwrecks occurred. Due to this fact (and other biological factors) Arraial do Cabo is well known as the "Dive Capital".

The municipality operates the Ilha do Cabo Frio Biological Reserve, a fully protected conservation unit on an Atlantic island in the south east of the municipality.[7] It contains the 56,769 hectares (140,280 acres) Arraial do Cabo Marine Extractive Reserve, created in 1997.[8]

Climate[edit]

 
[hide]Climate data for Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 34.2
(93.6)
35.4
(95.7)
30.1
(86.2)
28.7
(83.7)
27.2
(81)
26.1
(79)
25.4
(77.7)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27.8
(82)
29.5
(85.1)
34.7
(94.5)
29.32
(84.78)
Daily mean °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
29.1
(84.4)
27.9
(82.2)
26.5
(79.7)
24.5
(76.1)
22.7
(72.9)
21
(70)
21.4
(70.5)
22.2
(72)
25.2
(77.4)
27.6
(81.7)
28.3
(82.9)
25.41
(77.76)
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73)
21.5
(70.7)
20
(68)
18.2
(64.8)
17.6
(63.7)
18.2
(64.8)
19
(66)
19.7
(67.5)
20.7
(69.3)
21.8
(71.2)
20.46
(68.82)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 78.2
(3.079)
44.2
(1.74)
52.8
(2.079)
78.3
(3.083)
69.1
(2.72)
43.9
(1.728)
44.7
(1.76)
36.1
(1.421)
61
(2.4)
80.7
(3.177)
81
(3.19)
101.1
(3.98)
771.1
(30.357)
Average relative humidity (%) 82 82 82 80 81 81 80 81 81 82 82 82 81.3
Source: climate-charts.com[9]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ "Arraial do Cabo City Hall Website (in Portuguese)". Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  2. Jump up ^ "Cabo Frio City history - part one(in Portuguese)" (PDF). Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  3. Jump up to: a b c d "Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Website". Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  4. Jump up to: a b "City history at City Hall website (in Portuguese)". Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  5. Jump up ^ "Mayor's page at City Hall website (in Portuguese)". Retrieved November 20, 2013.
  6. Jump up ^ Arraial do Cabo, film by Mário Carneiro and Paulo Cesar Saraceni on YouTube
  7. Jump up ^ Unidades de Conservação da Região dos Lagos (PDF) (in Portuguese), Petrobras, retrieved 2016-04-26
  8. Jump up ^ RESEX Marinha do Arraial do Cabo (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-09-13
  9. Jump up ^ "climate-charts.com". Retrieved December 28, 2012.

Búzios

Armação dos Búzios

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
A view of Praia dos Ossos, from Sant'Anna Chapel.

Armação dos Búzios (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌahmaˈsɐ̃w duʒ ˈbuːzjui̯ʃ]), often referred to as just Búzios, is a resort town and a municipality located in the state of Rio de JaneiroBrazil. In 2012, its population consisted of 23,463 inhabitants and its area of 69 km². Today, Búzios is a popular getaway from the city and a worldwide tourist site, especially among Brazilians and Argentinians.

In the early 1900s Búzios was popular with the Carioca’s high society, who wanted to escape from the chaotic city life of Rio de Janeiro and enjoy over 23 beaches that the peninsula offers. But it wasn’t until 1964, when the French actress Brigitte Bardot visited Búzios, that it grew to be a popular international tourist destination.

Today, the peninsula is a travelling site that offers calmness, direct contact with nature and scenic views. The west coast beaches offer calm, clear waters while the east coast ones, facing the open sea, are more wild and draw surfers and water sports enthusiasts. Azeda, Ferradura, João Fernandes and Armação are amongst the most popular beaches in town. At night, Rua das Pedras, Buzios' main street, offers its visitors an active nightlife and a great variety of shopping and restaurants.

 

 

History[edit]

During the 16th century, the Tupinambá Indians occupied the area, which is now known as Búzios. During the 17th century, the Europeans invaded what was then a small village and as a result, the Tupinambá developed strict relationships with the French pirates and smugglers, who were interested in smuggling pau-brasil (famous Brazilian reddish wood) and selling African Slaves.[1] Eventually the French were expelled by the Portuguese due to their bloody disputes with the Tupinambás, which resulted in a significant decrease in the Indian population in that region.

 
Statue of Brigitte Bardot in Búzios.

In the 18th century, the gold trade from Minas Gerais and its exportation to Europe from Rio de Janeiro attracted many ships to the Guanabara Bay. Additionally the increasing number of ships along the city’s coast brought close attention to the whale hunting practice that took place in that area. The name “Armação dos Búzios”, for instance, comes from the process of separating the meat from the bones. In addition, a famous beach in Búzios called “Praia dos Ossos” was named after the great amount of whales’ bones found along the shore. Another curious fact about this practice at the time was that the city lights were fueled with whale oil, and the famous Sant’Ana Chapel located on the top of a hill between Praia dos Ossos and Praia da Armação, was built with rocks and whale oil as well.[2]

Around 1850 when slave trade was abolished in Brazil, Búzios was able to establish itself as a city that cultivated agricultural and fishing habits, instead of being just a smuggling, slave-trading and whale-hunting site. With time, the once European dominated city, shifted into a community composed by a mix of native descendants, blacks and interracial citizens. In 1940, Antonio Alipio da Silva was the first political representative to initiate a political life in Búzios.[3] As a consequence, the small town started to grow and attract a greater variety of people. During the mid 1900s, Búzios was already known to Rio’s high society, as it was a relatively reserved beach getaway from the chaotic urban life. However, it was only around 1964, when Brigitte Bardot visited the small town, that Búzios actually became well known.

Brigitte Bardot[edit]

Brigitte Bardot was a famous French actress in the 1960s that decided to go to Rio with her Brazilian boyfriend, Bob Zagury. However, due to the intense amount of paparazzi following them, Bob took his girlfriend to Búzios in order to enjoy the rest of their trip at a quieter and more exclusive site. At the time, the small town had no electricity and life there was quite bucolic yet it was the simplicity of the place, in conjunction with the peninsula’s natural beauty, that made Brigitte Bardot declare her admiration. Inevitably, Búzios became a global spotlight and although other stars like Mick Jagger and Madonna followed her path, none left as much of an impression as Bardot.[4] The place where she stayed in Búzios for the first time is now a small hotel, known as Pousada do Sol. The strip of land that connects Praia da Armação with the most famous street in town, Rua das Pedras, was named after her, Orla Bardot. She was also honored along the oceanfront path with a bronze statue made by Christina Motta.[5] The final tribute is the only cinema in the balneary named after her: Gran Cine Bardot. Inside, there are many pictures of famous actors and actresses, including Brigitte’s picture and signature, which hangs on a distinctive wall.

Main sights[edit]

Geography[edit]

 
Armação dos Búzios.

Armação dos Búzios is located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an area known as Região dos Lagos. The peninsula of 8 kilometers in extension features 23 beaches: Geribá, Tartaruga, João Fernandes, João Fernandinho, Ferradura, Ferradurinha, Azeda, Azedinha, Ossos, Manguinhos, Tucuns, Brava, Amores, Armação, Forno, Foca, Olho de Boi, Caravelas, José Gonçalves, Virgens, Canto, Rasa, Moças.[7]

Climate[edit]

Búzios has a tropical climate and temperatures in the southern hemisphere tend to vary between 30°C during the months of November and February, and the mid-20s from May to September.[8] Ocean breezes are common all year round.

When to visit[edit]

In order to avoid crowds, it is better to visit Búzios off-season, which starts from March (or after the Carnaval season) to June and from September to November.[9]

Transportation[edit]

Búzios is served by Umberto Modiano Airport which operates flights of general aviation.

Entertainment[edit]

 
Praia do centro beach.

Common outdoor activities include snorkeling, scuba diving, tanning or lying in the sun, and beach hopping on aqua taxi or buggies. As for nightlife activities, Rua das Pedras is the place to go. Literally translated as “Stone Street”, the cobblestone pathway is the center of the city life, featuring a large variety of stores, restaurants, clubs, bars and art galleries.

Some of the most famous restaurants include Chez Michou, the busiest place to eat French-style crepes and drink caipirinhas in town; Satyricon, considered to be one of the fanciest restaurant in Búzios, specialized in sea food; Pizzeria Capricciosa, located side-by-side with Satyricon yet specialized in Italian food. Last but not least, is the relatively new restaurant Sollar, located in the beginning of the Orla Bardot, which features the renowned Italian chef Danio Braga. Nightlife in Búzios is a must, and the most famous clubs/bars are: The House of Rock and Roll, Privilège, Pacha, Anexo and Zapata. In terms of what to wear, women are usually dressed in flat sandals due to the difficulty to walk on the cobblestone streets.

In terms of shopping, Rua das Pedras is the place to go. There you can find the best stores in Rio such as Animale, Richards, Osklen, Oh Boy!, Maria Filó, Lacoste, Farm, Eclectic and Havainas. For Beachwear, the best stores are: Salinas, Lenny Niemeyer, Banco de Areia, Bum Bum and Água de Coco.[10]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ About Buzios." El Misti. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://www.elmistibuzios.com/en/about-buzios>
  2. Jump up ^ About Buzios." El Misti. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://www.elmistibuzios.com/en/about-buzios>
  3. Jump up ^ A Colonização De Búzios." A Colonização De Búzios.16 Mar. 2013. <"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2013-03-26.>
  4. Jump up ^ Farquhar, Stephen. "And Bardot Created Búzios." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 Sept. 2004. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2004/sep/25/brazil.guardiansaturdaytravelsection>
  5. Jump up ^ "Buzios Online." Practical Information. 04 Mar. 2013. <http://www.buziosonline.com.br/home/english/euteis.cfm>
  6. Jump up ^ Igrejas de Búzios - Capela de Nossa Senhora Desatadora de Nós - (Rio de Janeiro Aqui, 08. Nov. 2014)
  7. Jump up ^ "Praias Buzios: Praias Em Buzios." Buzios.Travel. 13 Mar. 2013. <http://www.buzios.travel/praias.html>
  8. Jump up ^ "Buzios Travel Guides." HotelTravel.com. 22 Mar. 2013. <http://www.hoteltravel.com/brazil/buzios/guides/overview.htm>
  9. Jump up ^ Stellin, Susan. "Búzios, Rio's Playground In the Sun." The New York Times. The New York Times, 03 Aug. 2003. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/03/travel/buzios-rio-s-playground-in-the-sun.html?pagewanted=3>
  10. Jump up ^ "Escape to Buzios." Departures. 05 Mar. 2013. <http://www.departures.com/articles/escape-to-buzios>

 

External links[edit]

Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Fernando de Noronha Archipelago
Native nameArquipélago de Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha - Pernambuco - Brasil(5).jpg
Do Meio and Conceição beaches
Amphisbaena ridleyi distribution.png
Geography
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 3°51′13.71″S32°25′25.63″WCoordinates3°51′13.71″S 32°25′25.63″W
Archipelago Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha
Total islands 21
Major islands Fernando de Noronha; Ilha Rata; Ilha do Meio; Ilha Sela Gineta; Ilha Rasa
Area 26 km2 (10 sq mi)
Length 10 km (6 mi)
(Fernando de Noronha Island)
Width 3.5 km (2.17 mi)
(Fernando de Noronha Island)
Highest elevation 323 m (1,060 ft)
Highest point Morro do Pico
Administration
Brazil
Region Northeast
State Pernambuco
Largest settlement Vila dos Remédios
Demographics
Population 2,718[1] (2012)
Additional information
Official website www.noronha.pe.gov.br
 
Official name Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves
Type Natural
Criteria vii, ix, x
Designated 2001 (25th session)
Reference no. 1000
State Party Brazil
Region Latin America and the Caribbean

Fernando de Noronha (Portuguese pronunciation: [feʁˈnɐ̃du d(ʒ)i noˈɾoɲɐ]) is an archipelago of 21 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, 354 km (220 mi) offshore from the Brazilian coast. The archipelago got its name from the Portuguese merchant Fernão de Noronha, to whom it was given by the Portuguese crown for services rendered regarding wood imported from Brazil. The main island has an area of 18.4 km2 (7.1 sq mi) and had a population estimated at 2,718 in 2012.[1] The area is a special municipality (distrito estadual) of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco (despite being closer to the state of Rio Grande do Norte),[2] with about 70% established in 1988 as a national maritime park.

In 2001 UNESCO designated it as a World Heritage Site because of the importance of its environment. Its timezone is UTC-02:00 all year round. The local population and travellers can get to Noronha by plane or cruise from Recife,[3] 545 km (339 mi). An environmental preservation fee is charged from tourists upon arrival by Ibama (Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources).

 

 

Geography[edit]

Geology[edit]

The islands of this archipelago are the visible parts of a range of submerged mountains. It consists of 21 islands, islets and rocks of volcanic origin. The main island has an area of 18 km2 (6.9 sq mi), being 10 km (6.2 mi) long and 3.5 km (2.2 mi) wide at its maximum. The base of this enormous volcanic formation is 756 metres (2,480 ft) below the surface. The volcanic rocks are of variable though mainly silica-undersaturated character with basanitenephelinite and phonolite among the lava types found.[4] The main island, from which the group gets its name, makes up 91% of the total area; the islands of Rata, Sela Gineta, Cabeluda and São José, together with the islets of Leão and Viúva make up the rest. The central upland of the main island is called the Quixaba.[5]

Flora[edit]

The United Nations Environment Programme lists 15 possible endemic plant species, including species of the genera Capparis noronhae (2 species), Ceratosanthes noronhae (3 species), Cayaponia noronhae (2 species), Moriordica noronhae, Cereus noronhaePalicourea noronhaeGuettarda noronhaeBumelia noronhaePhysalis noronhae, and Ficus noronhae.[6]

Fauna[edit]

The islands have two endemic birds — the Noronha elaenia (Elaenia ridleyana) and the Noronha vireo (Vireo gracilirostris). Both are present on the main island; Noronha vireo is also present on Ilha Rata. In addition there is an endemic race of eared dove Zenaida auriculata noronha. Subfossil remains of an extinct endemic rail have also been found.[7] The archipelago is also an important site for breeding seabirds. An endemic sigmodontinerodent, Noronhomys vespuccii, mentioned by Amerigo Vespucci, is now extinct.[8] The islands have two endemic reptiles, Amphisbaena ridleyi and Trachylepis atlantica.[9]

Marine life[edit]

The life above and below sea is the main attraction of the island. Sea turtlescetaceans (most common among these are spinner dolphins and humpback whales, followed by many others such as Pantropical spotted dolphinsShort-finned pilot whalesMelon-headed whales[10]), albatrosses and many other species are frequently observed.

Climate[edit]

The climate is tropical, with two well-defined seasons for rainfall, if not temperature. The rainy season lasts from February to July; the rest of the year sees little rain. The temperature ranges, both diurnal and monthly, are unusually slight.[11]

[hide]Climate data for Fernando de Noronha (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
30
(86)
29.7
(85.5)
29.6
(85.3)
29.2
(84.6)
28.7
(83.7)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.7
(83.7)
29.1
(84.4)
29.5
(85.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.2
(84.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27
(81)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.2
(79.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.7
(78.3)
26
(79)
26.3
(79.3)
26.6
(79.9)
27
(81)
26.5
(79.7)
Average low °C (°F) 24.9
(76.8)
24.8
(76.6)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
24.1
(75.4)
24.4
(75.9)
24.6
(76.3)
24.9
(76.8)
24.4
(75.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.1
(2.484)
110.6
(4.354)
263.6
(10.378)
290.3
(11.429)
280.3
(11.035)
190.2
(7.488)
122
(4.8)
37
(1.46)
18.5
(0.728)
12
(0.47)
13
(0.51)
17.8
(0.701)
1,418.4
(55.837)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 250.6 209.3 189.5 238.8 208.4 222.5 224.7 260.2 265 285.3 281.5 271.2 2,907
Source: Climate Charts/NOAA.[12][13]

History[edit]

Discovery[edit]

 
The main island.

Many controversies mark the discovery of the archipelago by Europeans. At least three names – São LourençoSão João, and Quaresma – have been associated with the island around the time of its discovery.[citation needed]

Based on the written record, Fernando de Noronha island was discovered on August 10, 1503, by a Portuguese expedition, organized and financed by a private commercial consortium headed by the Lisbon merchant Fernão de Loronha. The expedition was under the overall command of captain Gonçalo Coelho and carried the Italian adventurer Amerigo Vespucci aboard, who wrote an account of it.[14] The flagship of the expedition hit a reef and foundered near the island, and the crew and contents had to be salvaged. On Coelho's orders, Vespucci anchored at the island, and spent a week there, while the rest of the Coelho fleet went on south. In his letter to Soderini, Vespucci describes the uninhabited island and reports its name as the "island of St. Lawrence" (August 10 is the feast day of St. Lawrence; it was a custom of Portuguese explorations to name locations by the liturgical calendar).[citation needed]

Its existence was reported back to Lisbon sometime between then and January 16, 1504, when King Manuel I of Portugal issued a charter granting the "island of St. John" (São João) as a hereditary captaincy to Fernão de Loronha.[15] The date and new name in the charter has presented historians with a puzzle. As Vespucci did not return to Lisbon until September, 1504, the discovery must have been earlier. Historians have hypothesized that a stray ship of the Coelho fleet, under an unknown captain, may have returned to the island (prob. on August 29, 1503, feast day of the beheading of St. John the Baptist) to collect Vespucci, did not find him or anyone else there, and went back to Lisbon by himself with the news.[16] (Vespucci in his letter, claims he left the island August 18, 1503, and upon his arrival in Lisbon a year later, on September 7, 1504, the people of Lisbon were surprised, as they "had been told" (presumably by the earlier captain?) that his ship had been lost.)[17] The captain who returned to Lisbon with the news (and the St. John name) is unknown. (some have speculated this captain was Loronha himself, the chief financier of this expedition, but that is highly unlikely.)

 
Detail from the 1502 Cantino planisphere, showing the island of "Quaresma" (Fernando de Noronha?) off the Brazilian coast.

This account, reconstructed from the written record, is severely marred by the cartographic record. An island, named Quaresma, looking very much like Fernando de Noronha island, appears in the Cantino planisphere. The Cantino map was composed by an anonymous Portuguese cartographer, and completed before November 1502, well before the Coelho expedition even set out. This has led to speculation that the island was discovered by a previous expedition. However, there is no consensus on which expedition that might have been. The name, "Quaresma" means Lent, suggesting it must have been discovered in March or early April, which does not correspond well with the known expeditions. There is also a mysterious red island to the left of Quaresma in the Cantino map that does not fit with Fernando de Noronha island. Some have explained these anomalies away by reading quaresma as anaresma(meaning unknown, but sidesteps the Lent timing),[18] and proposing that the red island is just an accidental inkblot.[19]

Assuming Quaresma is indeed Fernando de Noronha, then who discovered it? One proposal is that it was discovered by a royal Portuguese mapping expedition that was sent out in May, 1501, commanded by an unknown captain (possibly André Gonçalves) and also accompanied by Amerigo Vespucci.[20] According to Vespucci, this expedition returned to Lisbon in September 1502, just on time to influence the final composition of the Cantino map. Unfortunately, Vespucci does not report discovering this island then – indeed he is quite clear that the first time he (and his fellow sailors) saw the island was on the 1503 Coelho expedition. However, there is a letter written by an Italian saying that a ship arrived "from the land of Parrots" in Lisbon on July 22, 1502 (three months before Vespucci).[21] This could be a stray ship from the mapping expedition that returned prematurely, or another expedition altogether, about which we have no information.[22] The timing of its reputed arrival (July 1502), makes it possible that it stumbled on the island sometime in March 1502, on the homeward voyage, well within Lent.[citation needed]

A third possible (but unlikely) theory is that the island was discovered already in 1500, shortly after the discovery of Brazil by the Second India Armada under Pedro Alvares Cabral. After his brief landfall at Porto Seguro, Cabral dispatched a supply ship under either Gaspar de Lemos or André Gonçalves (sources conflict) back to Lisbon, to report the discovery. This returning supply ship would have returned north along the Brazilian coast and might have come across Fernando de Noronha island, and reported its existence in Lisbon by July 1500.[23] However, this contradicts the Quaresma name, since the returning supply ship was sailing well after Lent.

A fourth (but also unlikely) possibility is that it was discovered by the Third India Armada of João da Nova, which set out from Lisbon in March or April 1501, and arrived back in September 1502, also in time to influence the Cantino map. Chronicler Gaspar Correia asserts that on the outward voyage, the Third Armada made a stop on the Brazilian coast around Cape Santo Agostinho.[24] Two other chroniclers (João de Barros and Damião de Góis) do not mention a landfall, but do report they discovered an island (which they believe to be identified as Ascension island, but this is not certain).[25] So it is possible that the Third Armada may indeed have discovered Fernando de Noronha island on their outward leg. However, the timing is very tight: Easter landed on April 11, 1501, while the estimated departure date of the Third Armada from Lisbon ranges from March 5 to April 15, not leaving enough time to reach those environs within Lent.

As a result of these anomalies, some modern historians have proposed that Fernando de Noronha is not depicted on the 1502 Cantino map at all. Instead, they have proposed that Quaresma island and the accompanying red "inkblot" are in fact the Rocas Atoll, slightly misplaced on the map. This reserves the discovery of Fernando de Noronha island itself as indeed on August 10, 1503, by the Gonçalo Coelho expedition, as originally reported by Vespucci.[26]

The transition of the name from "São João" to "Fernando de Noronha" was probably just natural usage. A royal letter dated May 20, 1559, to descendants of the Loronha family, still refers to the island by its official name of ilha de São João.,[27] but already in other places, e.g. the logbook of Martim Afonso de Sousa in the 1530s, it was referred to as the "island of Fernão de Noronha" ("Noronha" being a common misspelling of "Loronha"). The informal name eventually displaced the official name.

1500–1700[edit]

 
Ruins of Fort Santana

The Lisbon merchant Fernão de Loronha held not only Fernando de Noronha island as a hereditary captaincy but also (from 1503 to around 1512) a commercial monopoly on trade in Brazil. Between 1503 and 1512, Noronha's agents set up a string of warehouses (feitorias) along the Brazilian coast, and engaged in trade with the indigenous peoples in Brazil for brazilwood, a native red dye wood highly valued by European clothmakers. Fernando de Noronha island was the central collection point of this network. Brazilwood, continuously harvested by the coastal Indians and delivered to the various coastal warehouses, was shipped to the central warehouse on Fernando de Noronha island, which was intermittently visited by a larger transport ship that would carry the collected loads back to Europe. After the expiration of Loronha's commercial charter in 1512, the organization of the brazilwood enterprise was taken over by the Portuguese crown, but Loronha and his descendents retained private ownership of Fernando de Noronha island itself as a hereditary captaincy, at least down to the 1560s.

1700–1900[edit]

Captain Henry Foster stopped at Fernando de Noronha during his scientific survey expedition as commander of HMS Chanticleer, which had set out in 1828. As well as surveying coasts and ocean currents, Foster used a Kater invariable pendulum to make observations on gravity.[28] He took the island as the point of junction of his double line of longitudes setting out his survey. He was given considerable assistance by the Governor of Fernando Noronha who let Foster use part of his own house for the pendulum experiments.[29] The longitude of Rio de Janeiro taken by Foster was among those on one side of a significant discrepancy, which meant that the charts of South America were in doubt.

To resolve this, the Admiralty instructed Captain Robert FitzRoy to command HMS Beagle on a survey expedition. One of its essential tasks was a stop at Fernando Noronha to confirm its exact longitude, using the 22 chronometers on board the ship to give the precise time of observations.[29] They arrived at the island in the late evening of 19 February 1832, anchoring at midnight. On 20 February FizRoy landed a small party to take the observations, despite difficulties caused by heavy surf, then sailed on for BahiaBrazil that evening.[30]

During the day, the island was visited by the naturalist Charles Darwin, who was one of the Beagle's passengers. He took notes for his book on geology. He wrote about admiring the woods:

"The whole island is one forest, & this is so thickly intertwined that it requires great exertion to crawl along. — The scenery was very beautiful, & large Magnolias & Laurels & trees covered with delicate flowers ought to have satisfied me. — But I am sure all the grandeur of the Tropics has not yet been seen by me. — We had no gaudy birds, No humming birds. No large flowers".[31]

His experiences on Fernando de Noronha were recorded in his journal, later published as The Voyage of the Beagle.[32] He also included a short description of the island in his 1844 Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.[33]

The island was also used as a penal colony in the 19th century.[34]

1900–2010[edit]

 
Island prisoners in 1930.
 
Fernando de Noronha Insel - Baia do Sancho

In the late 18th century, the first prisoners were sent to Fernando de Noronha. A prison was built. In 1897 the government of the state of Pernambuco took possession of the prison.[35] Between 1938 and 1945, Fernando de Noronha was a political prison. The former governor of Pernambuco, Miguel Arraes, was incarcerated there. In 1957 the prison was closed and the archipelago was visited by President Juscelino Kubitschek.[36]

At the beginning of the 20th century, the British arrived to provide technical cooperation in telegraphy (The South American Company). Later the French came with the French Cable[37] and the Italians with Italcable.[38]

In 1942, during World War II, the archipelago was made a Federal territory, which included Rocas Atoll and Saint Peter and Paul Rocks. The government‐sent political and ordinary prisoners to the local prison.[citation needed]

An airport was constructed in September 1942 by the United States Army Air Forces Air Transport Command for the Natal-Dakar air route. It provided a transoceanic link between Brazil and French West Africa for cargo, transiting aircraft and personnel during the Allies campaign in Africa. Brazil transferred the airport to the jurisdiction of the United States Navy on 5 September 1944.[39] After the end of the war, the administration of the airport was transferred back to the Brazilian Government. Fernando de Noronha Airport is served by daily flights from Recife and Natal on the Brazilian coast.

In 1988, Brazil designated approximately 70% of the archipelago as a maritime national park, with the goal of preserving the land and sea environment. On October 5, 1988, the Federal Territory was dissolved and added to the state of Pernambuco (except Rocas Atoll, which was added to the state of Rio Grande do Norte).

Today Fernando de Noronha's economy depends on tourism, restricted by the limitations of its delicate ecosystem. In addition to the historical interest noted above, the archipelago has been the subject of the attention of various scientists dedicated to the study of its florafaunageology, etc. The jurisdiction is considered to be a separate "entity" by the DX Century Club, and so is visited rather often by amateur radio operators.[citation needed]

In 2001, UNESCO declared Fernando de Noronha, with Rocas Atoll, a World Heritage Site. It cited the following reasons:

a) the island's importance as a feeding ground for several species, including tunabillfish, cetaceans, sharks, and marine turtles,
b) a high population of resident spinner dolphins and
c) protection for endangered species, such as the hawksbill sea turtle (critically endangered) and various birds.[40]

In 2009, Air France Flight 447 disappeared off the northeast coast of Brazil. It was presumed to have crashed into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Fernando de Noronha. Rescue and recovery operations were launched from this island.

Conservation and environmental threats[edit]

Most of the original vegetation was cut down in the 19th century, when the island was used as a prison, to keep the prisoners from hiding and making rafts.[citation needed]

Also, exotic species have been introduced:

  • Linseed, intended for use as cattle feed.[citation needed]
  • Tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae, locally known as teju) introduced in the 1950s to control a rat infestation. Ironically, that did not work out, because Tegus are diurnal and rats, nocturnal. Now the lizards themselves are considered a plague, feeding mostly on bird eggs.[41]
  • Rock cavies (Kerodon rupestris, locally known as mocó) introduced by the military in the 1960s as hunting game for soldiers.[42]
  • Domestic cats, introduced as pets, now they spread throughout the whole island and several acquired a feral status, surviving only by preying on native birds, rock cavies and synanthropic rodents.

From these, the domestic cat and the tegu lizard have become invasive.

The island is divided between the Fernando de Noronha Marine National Park and the Fernando de Noronha Environmental Protection Area. The latter covers the urban, tourist area.[43]

Economy[edit]

Tourism including dolphin watching, diving and charter fishing comprise the majority of the island’s economy.

Economic indicators[edit]

HDI (2000) Population (2012) GDP (2007) % PE GDP pc Hostels/pousadas beds (2006)
0.862 2,718 R$20,901,000 0.034% R$7,462 1,492

The archipelago of Fernando de Noronha in 2005 had a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of R$22,802,000 and a per capita income of R$10,001. The Human Development Index (HDI) district's state was estimated at 0.862 (PNUD/2000). The only banking center in the archipelago is a branch of Banco Santander Brasil. There are one or two additional ATMs around the main island.

Tourism[edit]

 
Praia do Cachorro

The beaches of Fernando de Noronha are promoted for tourism and recreational diving. The most popular ones include Baía do Sancho, Pig Bay, Dolphins Bay, Sueste Bay and Praia do Leão. Due to the South Equatorial Current that pushes warm water from Africa to the island, diving to depths of 30 to 40 metres (98 to 131 ft) does not require a wetsuit. The visibility underwater can reach up to 50 metres (160 ft).

The island is served by Gov. Carlos Wilson Airport with regular flights to Natal and Recife.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to: a b IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics)(2012). "IBGE - Cidades - Pernambuco - Fernando de Noronha - Estimativa da População - 2012" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-10-20.
  2. Jump up ^ "Fernando de Noronha - Transfer Aeroporto Porto de Galinhas, Locação de Veículos e Buggys, Passeios, Transfer em Van, Zafira, Dobló". Turismodonordeste.com. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  3. Jump up ^ "Fernando de Noronha - Pimentel lamenta suspensão de cruzeiro - Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de Pernambuco". Alepe.pe.gov.br. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  4. Jump up ^http://rbg.sbgeo.org.br/index.php/rbg/article/view/30305/19049 Geochemistry of the alkaline volcanic-subvolcanic rocks of the Fernando de Noronha Archiapelago, southern Atlantic Ocean
  5. Jump up ^ Carlos Secchin, Clóvis Barreira e Castro, Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, 2nd ed. 1991.
  6. Jump up ^ Fernando de Noronha, Islands of Brazil, UN System-wide Earthwatch
  7. Jump up ^ Sazima, I. and Haemig, P.D. 2012. Birds, Mammals and Reptiles of Fernando de Noronha. Ecology.Info 17.
  8. Jump up ^ Carleton, M.D. and Olson, S.L. 1999. Amerigo Vespucci and the rat of Fernando de Noronha: a new genus and species of Rodentia (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from a volcanic island off Brazil's continental shelf. American Museum Novitates 3256:1–59.
  9. Jump up ^ Mausfeld, P., Schmitz, A., Böhme, W., Misof, B., Vrcibradic, D. and Duarte, C.F. 2002. Phylogenetic affinities of Mabuya atlantica Schmidt, 1945, endemic to the Atlantic Ocean archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil): Necessity of partitioning the genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241:281–293.
  10. Jump up ^ http://www.car-spaw-rac.org/IMG/pdf/Brazil_Progress_report_on_cetacean_research_March_2006_to_February_2007_with_statistical_data_for_the_calendar_year_2006_or_season_2006-2007.pdf
  11. Jump up ^ Fernando de Noronha. "Clima em Fernando de Noronha". Ilhadenoronha.com.br. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
  12. Jump up ^ "Fernando De Noronha, Brazil: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. 1961–1990. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  13. Jump up ^ "Climate Statistics for Fernando de Noronha, Brazil 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1961–1990. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
  14. Jump up ^ The Coelho expedition is also known as the "Fourth Voyage" of Vespucci, and is related in the letter of Amerigo Vespucci to Piero Soderinic. 1504–05. See the English translation of the account in Letter to Soderini
  15. Jump up ^ An actual copy of this charter has never been found. Its contents and date, however, are summarized in a royal letter of March 3, 1522 confirming it, and yet another royal letter of May 20, 1559, identifying the location of São João precisely as Fernando de Noronha island. See Duarte Leite (1923: p.276–278) and Roukema (1963: p.21).
  16. Jump up ^ Roukema (1963: p.22)
  17. Jump up ^ Roukema (1963: p.21)
  18. Jump up ^ For an early reading of Quaresma as "Anaresma", see Henry Harrisse (1891) The Discovery of North America (1961 ed., p.319) and Orville Derby (1902) "Os mappas mais antigos do Brasil", Revista do Instituto Historico e Geografico de São Paulo, vol. 7, p.244. This reading was insisted upon later by historian Marcondes de Sousa (1949) Américo Vespúcio e suas viagens (São Paulo). It provoked a brief and surprisingly bitter controversy with other historians, e.g. Damião Peres, Duarte Leite.
  19. Jump up ^ The inkblot theory was suggested by Duarte Leite (1923: p.275–278).
  20. Jump up ^ The 1501 mapping expedition is also known as the "Third Voyage" of Amerigo Vespucci (and his first under the Portuguese flag). Amerigo Vespucci relates the account of this expedition twice - first in a letter to Lorenzo Pietro Francesco di Medici, written in early 1503 (see (account) in Letter do Medici), and then again in his letters to Piero Soderini, written 1504-05 ([account] in Letter to Soderini). In his account, Vespucci does not mention the name of the captain of this 1501 mapping expedition, and his identity has been widely speculated. The 16th-century chronicler Gaspar Correiasuggests it was André Gonçalves (Lendas da Indiap.152). Greenlee (1945) reviews various possible names – and settles on the conjecture that it might be Fernão de Loronha himself (a hypothesis also suggested by Duarte Leite (1923)). But this is strongly disputed by other authors, e.g. Roukema (1963). It would be highly unlikely a prominent and wealthy merchant like Loronha would absent his businesses to go personally command vessels himself. Loronha's support (if any) to the mapping expedition was probably limited to financing.
  21. Jump up ^ This letter was written by Venetian emissary Pascualigo on October 12, 1502, and is quoted in the diary of Marino Sanuto. See Greenlee (1945: p.11n) and Roukema (1963:p.19).
  22. Jump up ^ Roukema (1963) accepts the hypothesis of a unrecorded separate expedition in 1501 - and that this might be the one led by André Gonçalves. However, Greenlee (1945) rejects the unrecorded expedition theory, deeming it superfluous, and instead embraces the stray ship theory (and that this stray ship was precisely the flagship personally commanded by Fernão de Loronha).
  23. Jump up ^ Roukema (1963) rejects this theory.
  24. Jump up ^ Gaspar Correia, Lendas da India (p.235)
  25. Jump up ^ João de Barros, Decadas da Asia, vol.1, p.466; Damião de Góis, Chronica de D.Manuelp.84. See Roukema (1963) on the possible problems of identifying the island discovered by the Third Armada on its outward leg as Ascension island.
  26. Jump up ^ Roukema (1963: p.19-22). Roukema concludes that it was the Rocas atoll that was discovered by the returning stray ship/unrecorded expedition on March 16, 1502, well within Lent.
  27. Jump up ^ Duarte Leite (1923: p.276–278)
  28. Jump up ^ "Image of 'sketches of the island of fernando noronha', south atlantic, 1828-1831."Science Museum. Science & Society Picture Library. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
  29. Jump up to: a b FitzRoy, R. (1839) Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, London: Henry Colburn, pp. 24–26.
  30. Jump up ^ FitzRoy, R. (1839) Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, London: Henry Colburn, pp. 58–60.
  31. Jump up ^ Keynes, R. D. ed. (2001) Charles Darwin's Beagle diary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 39.
  32. Jump up ^ Darwin, C. R. (1839) Journal and remarks. 1832-1836. London: Henry Colburn, 10–11.
  33. Jump up ^ Darwin, C. R. (1844) Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, London: Smith Elder and Co., pp. 23–24.
  34. Jump up ^ Clare Anderson, (2015), Convicts, Collecting and Knowledge Production in the Nineteenth Century[1]
  35. Jump up ^ Noronha História
  36. Jump up ^ Fernando de Noronha: História da ilha remete ao inferno e ao paraíso
  37. Jump up ^ History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications, French cable companies
  38. Jump up ^ History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications, Italcable
  39. Jump up ^ USAFHRA Document 00001957
  40. Jump up ^ World Heritage description
  41. Jump up ^ Tupinambis merianae, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental (The Nature Conservancy), 2005
  42. Jump up ^ Kerodon rupestris, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental (The Nature Conservancy), 2005
  43. Jump up ^ Área de Proteção Ambiental Fernando de Noronha - Rocas - São Pedro e São Paulo (in Portuguese), Parque Nacional Marinho Fernando de Noronha, retrieved 2016-04-21

Bibliography[edit]

  • Duarte Leite (1923) "O Mais antigo mapa do Brasil" in História da Colonização Portuguesa do Brasil, vol.2, pp. 221–81.
  • Greenlee, W.B. (1945) "The Captaincy of the Second Portuguese Voyage to Brazil, 1501–1502", The Americas, Vol. 2, p. 3–13.
  • Roukema, E. (1963) "Brazil in the Cantino Map", Imago Mundi, Vol. 17, p. 7–26

External links[edit]

Tourism

Videos

Florianóplis

Florianópolis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Florianópolis
The Municipality of Florianópolis
Montage of Florianópolis
Montage of Florianópolis
Flag of Florianópolis
Flag
Official seal of Florianópolis
Seal
Nickname(s): FloripaMagic Island
SantaCatarina Municip Florianopolis.svg
Coordinates: 27°50′S 48°25′W
Country  Brazil
Region South
State Bandeira de Santa Catarina.svg Santa Catarina
Founded 23 March 1673 (343 years)
Government
 • Mayor Cesar Souza Junior (PSD)
Area
 • City 675.409 km2(260,776 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m (9 ft)
Population (2015)
 • City 469,690
 • Density 700/km2 (1.8/sq mi)
 • Urban 358,180
 • Metro 1,111,702
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code 88000-000 to 88099-999
Area code(s) (+55) 48
Website www.pmf.sc.gov.br

Florianópolis (Portuguese pronunciation: [floɾi.aˈnɔpolis]) is the capital city and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil. It is composed of one main island, theIsland of Santa Catarina (Ilha de Santa Catarina), a continental part and the surrounding small islands. It has a population of 461,524, according to the 2014 IBGE population estimate,[1] the second most populous city in the state (after Joinville), and the 47th in Brazil. The metropolitan area has an estimated population of 1,111,702, the 21st largest in the country. The city is known for having a very high quality of life, ranked as the country's third highest Human Development Index score among all Brazilian cities (0.847).[2]

The economy of Florianópolis is heavily based on information technologytourism and services.[3] The city has 42 beaches and is a center of surfing activity. Lagoa da Conceição is the most famous area for tourism, recreation, nature and radical sports. The New York Times reported that "Florianopolis is the Party Destination of the Year in 2009."[4] Newsweek placed Florianópolis in the "Ten most dynamic cities of the world" list in 2006.[5] Veja, a Brazilian publication, named the city as "the best place to live in Brazil."[6] As a result of this exposure, Florianópolis is growing as a second home destination for many PaulistasArgentinesNorth Americans, and Europeans.

Most of the population lives on the mainland and on the island's central and northern parts. The southern half is less inhabited. Many small commercial fishermen populate the island. The fishingboats, the lacemakers, the folklore, the cuisine and the colonial architecture contribute to the growing tourism and attracts resources that compensate for the lack of any large industry. Villages immersed in tradition and history, such as Santo Antônio de Lisboa and Ribeirão da Ilha still resist the advances of modernity.[7]

The Hercílio Luz International Airport serves the city. Florianópolis is home to the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Federal University of Santa Catarina). There are also the Santa Catarina Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology (Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina), and two campuses of the Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (State University of Santa Catarina), amongst other institutions of higher and professional education.

 

Etymology[edit]

The name Florianópolis was meant to be a tribute to Marshal Floriano Peixoto, the second President (1891–1894) of the Republic of the United States of Brazil and from Greek term πόλις (polis, meaning "city"). Until 1893, the city was called Nossa Senhora do Desterro (Our Lady of Banishment) or simply "Desterro".

Geography[edit]

Florianópolis
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
176
 
 
28
21
 
 
197
 
 
28
21
 
 
186
 
 
27
20
 
 
96
 
 
25
18
 
 
96
 
 
23
15
 
 
75
 
 
20
13
 
 
94
 
 
20
13
 
 
92
 
 
20
14
 
 
126
 
 
21
15
 
 
116
 
 
22
16
 
 
98
 
 
24
18
 
 
146
 
 
26
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MSN Weather

Climate[edit]

Florianópolis experiences a warm humid subtropical climate, falling just short of a true tropical climate. The seasons of the year are distinct, with a well-defined summer and winter, and characteristic weather for autumn and spring. Frost is infrequent, but occurs occasionally in the winter. Due to the proximity of the sea, the relative humidity of the atmosphere is 80% on average.

The maximum temperatures of the hottest month varies from 25 °C (77 °F) to 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) and the minimum temperatures are from 6 °C (43 °F) to 11 °C (52 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.7 °C (33.3 °F) in September 1980 while the highest temperature ever recorded was 38.8 °C (101.8 °F) in February 1973.[8]

Precipitation[edit]

There is significant precipitation which is well distributed throughout the year. The annual normal precipitation for the period of 1961 through 1990 was 1,517.8 millimetres (59.76 in).[8] There is no dry season, and summer generally is the rainiest season. Increased rainfall occurs from January to March, with a median of 160 millimetres (6.3 in) per month, and from April to December there is somewhat less precipitation, averaging 100 millimetres (3.9 in) per month. The driest months are from June to August.

Vegetation[edit]

Florianópolis has a native Atlantic Forest-type vegetation. This vegetation has an extremely diverse and unique mix of vegetation and forest types. The main ecoregion is the coastal Atlantic forest, the narrow strip of about 50–100 kilometers (31–62 miles) along the coast which covers about 20 percent of the region. This forests extend as far as 500–600 kilometers (310–372 miles) inland and its range is as high as 2,000 meters above sea level. Altitude determines at least three vegetation types in the Atlantic Forest: the lowland forest of the coastal plain, montane forests, and the high-altitude grassland or "campo rupestre".

[hide]Climate data for Florianopolis (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.2
(100.8)
38.8
(101.8)
33.1
(91.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88)
28.8
(83.8)
29.9
(85.8)
33.0
(91.4)
35.6
(96.1)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) 28.0
(82.4)
28.4
(83.1)
27.5
(81.5)
25.4
(77.7)
23.0
(73.4)
20.9
(69.6)
20.4
(68.7)
20.7
(69.3)
21.2
(70.2)
22.9
(73.2)
24.8
(76.6)
26.6
(79.9)
24.2
(75.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
24.6
(76.3)
23.6
(74.5)
21.1
(70)
18.9
(66)
16.7
(62.1)
16.5
(61.7)
16.9
(62.4)
17.9
(64.2)
19.6
(67.3)
21.3
(70.3)
23.0
(73.4)
20.4
(68.7)
Average low °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.8
(71.2)
20.7
(69.3)
18.3
(64.9)
15.6
(60.1)
13.4
(56.1)
13.3
(55.9)
14.0
(57.2)
15.1
(59.2)
16.9
(62.4)
18.6
(65.5)
20.3
(68.5)
17.5
(63.5)
Record low °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
15.4
(59.7)
10.2
(50.4)
7.7
(45.9)
5.3
(41.5)
2.2
(36)
1.5
(34.7)
4.0
(39.2)
0.7
(33.3)
9.1
(48.4)
9.4
(48.9)
12.5
(54.5)
0.7
(33.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 162.7
(6.406)
196.9
(7.752)
173.0
(6.811)
92.8
(3.654)
96.9
(3.815)
89.5
(3.524)
99.5
(3.917)
95.3
(3.752)
134.2
(5.283)
109.8
(4.323)
130.2
(5.126)
137.0
(5.394)
1,517.8
(59.756)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 13 12 8 7 8 8 8 11 11 11 11 120
Average relative humidity (%) 81 82 82 82 83 83 84 83 83 81 80 80 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 201.1 185.1 194.1 195.1 185.0 163.2 169.5 152.6 129.4 159.1 173.9 188.7 2,096.8
Source: INMET[8]

History[edit]

 
The city in 1847
 
São José fortress
 
Historic Center of Florianópolis

Carijós Indians, a Tupi people,[citation needed] were the first inhabitants[citation needed] of Florianópolis area. The traces of its presence are verified through archaeological sites and sambaquis dating up to 4000 years ago. The Indians called the place Meiembipe or "mountain along the channel".

Around 1514 the Portuguese landed and gave the area the name Ilha dos Patos, but in 1526 it was renamed Ilha de Santa Catarina (Saint Catherine Island). The area supplied the vessels that went to the River Plate (Río de la Plata) Basin.

The official settlement of the island began in 1673 with the arrival of bandeirante Francisco Dias Velho's agricultural company and it continued in 1678 with the construction of a chapel consecrated to Nossa Senhora do Desterro. At this time a villa began to take form, slowly becoming a colonial settlement.

To guarantee its domain the Portuguese Crown elevated Santa Catarina Island to the category of village in 1714 with the name of Nossa Senhora do Desterro and already in 1726 they promoted it again, now to the category of town.

From this date on Vila do Desterro and mainly the port began to have a strategic function because it was situated halfway between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, possibly two of the largest seaside cities of South America at that time. For this reason in 1739 the Capitania da Ilha de Santa Catarina was created and Desterro became its capital. Soon the most expressive seaside defensive ring ofSouthern Brazil started to be built: Santa Cruz, São José da Ponta Grossa, Santo Antonio and Nossa Senhora da Conceição da Barra do Sul fortresses.

With the coming of the Captaincy the population began to grow, but the great population growth happened between 1747 and 1756 with the arrival of about 6,000 settlers coming from the Archipelago ofAzores and from Madeira Island. The development of the agriculture, the cotton and linen industry and the commerce followed the Azorean occupation. In 1823, during the monarchy which ended in 1889, Desterro became the Capital of Santa Catarina Province opening a period of prosperity with many urban works and also intense political organization.

Regional elites not happy with the government centralization staged the Revolta Federalista (Federalist Revolt) at the beginning of the Brazilian Republic. The movement that started in Rio Grande do Sulspread to Santa Catarina and turned Desterro into the Federalist Capital of the Republic. The then president of Brazil, Marechal Floriano Peixoto, known as Iron Marshal, suppressed the rebellion and ordered the shooting of many people who were considered enemies of the state, in the Anhatomirim Island Fortress. Possibly to show loyalty to the marshal, 1893 saw the change of the state capital's name: from Desterro to Florianópolis, that is to say, city of Floriano.

Demographics[edit]

 
Beira Mar Avenue in Florianopolis

According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 406,564 people residing in the city (in 2010 IBGE reports a population of 421,203). The population density was 928 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,400/sq mi). The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 366,000 White people (90.0%), 37,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (9.0%), 4,000 Blackpeople (1.0%), 400 Asian or Amerindian people (0.1%).[9]

Florianópolis has a population mostly composed of Brazilians of European descent. The numbers of immigrants started to increase in the mid-18th century, mostly with the arrival of Portuguese colonists from the Azores Islands. The population of Florianópolis was composed mainly of Portuguese/Azoreans, Germans, and Italians. Further south, some neighborhoods preserve their rural village identity. The cultural heritage left by their Azorean ancestors is noticeable in their manner of speaking, in handicrafts, and traditional festivities.

The small village of Santo António de Lisboa (Saint Anthony of Lisbon) is an example of colonial period architecture and in Ribeirão da Ilha, the oldest part of the capital, the inhabitants still speak theAzorean dialect which is difficult to understand at first. In Ribeirão da Ilha is the church of Our Lady of Lapa do Ribeirão, built in 1806. Lagoa da Conceição, with its many sand dunes, restaurants and seaside night life and where women make lace to sell in the street, has also managed to retain many traces of its colonial architecture.[10]

On the other side, the city has taken on a cosmopolitan air with the arrival of Brazilians from other states and foreigners who chose to live there. The island, which at the beginning of the colonization period, was an important whale hunting centre, is today a technological pole of the IT industry. A State Capital of interest to tourism, Florianópolis is currently inhabited by about 400,000 people. The metro area has about 980,000 people.

Economy[edit]

 
Beach in Florianópolis
 
South bay in the city
 
Joaquina Beach

According to 2002 Sefaz statistics, agricultural activities represented 0.05%, manufacturing represented 3.41% and the sector of the commerce and service 96.54%.[11]

Tourism is one of the staples of Florianópolis' economy. Many inhabitants and tourists consider Floripa to have a singular beauty endowed with strong lines of Azorean culture, observed in the buildings, workmanship, folkloreculinary and religious traditions. Its environmental restrictions on building and commercial development have been more or less strictly enforced, helping it to keep its original character.

Between 1970 and 2004, Florianópolis's population tripled. But the local economy grew fivefold, and incomes grew in step. Opportunity seekers, urban and rural, white collar and blue, poured in. While many Brazilian cities are struggling to graduate from smokestacks to services, Florianópolis is succeeding. Thanks in part to a federal rule that for decades barred heavy industry on the island, town elders focused on cleaner public works which led to the founding of several public and private universities that make this one of the most scholarly cities in Brazil.

To meet the demands of its academic crowd, the city invested heavily in everything from roads to schools, and now Florianópolis ranks high on every development measure, from literacy (97 percent) toelectrification (near 100 percent). By the late 1990s, private companies were flocking to the island, or emerging from a technology "incubator" at the federal university. (Among the innovations it hatched: the computerized voting machines that have made Brazilian elections fraud-free and efficient). Local officials now say their aim is to be the Silicon Valley of Brazil, with beaches.[12]

In addition to its white sand beaches, Florianópolis offers many historical attractions, including the sites of the original Azorean colonists, the Lagoa da Conceição lagoon, and Santo Antônio de Lisboa. Tourism in Florianópolis has grown significantly over the past 10 years, with increasing numbers of visitors coming from other large cities in Brazil (particularly Porto AlegreCuritibaSão Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) as well as other South American countries (particularly Argentina, with direct flights offered daily from Buenos Aires).[13]

During the past several years, a greater number of international tourists have also begun to frequent the island (particularly from Europe and the United States). As the number of visitors grows each year, Florianopolis faces the ongoing challenge of ensuring that its limited infrastructure and resources are updated to adequately accommodate them. Of particular concern are the sewers, which often drain directly into the ocean, polluting the very beaches that attract so many visitors.

During the past decade technology and software development firms also experienced strong growth, and today Information Technology services are one of the top revenue generators in Florianópolis.[14]Several technology centers are spread around Florianópolis, making the city an important pole in this economic sector.

The GDP for the city was R$6,259,393,000 (2005).[15]

The per capita income for the city was R$15,776 (2005).[16]

Education[edit]

Educational institutions[edit]

  • Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC);
  • Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC);
  • Complexo de Ensino Superior de Santa Catarina (CESUSC);
  • Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL);
  • Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI);
  • Centro Universitário Estácio de Sá de Santa Catarina;
  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina (IFSC);
  • and many others.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

The Florianópolis high schools that obtained the best results on the 2007 Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (National High School Exam) are Escola Autonomia, Colégio da Lagoa, Colégio Energia, Colégio Tendência, Colégio Expoente, Colégio Adventista de Florianópolis, Colégio Geração, Colégio de Aplicação UFSC, EEB Feliciano Nunes Pires, IFSC, Colégio Decisão, EEB Professor AníbalNunes Pires, Instituto Estadual de Educação, EEB Osmar Cunha, EEb Getúlio Vargas, EEB Presidente Roosevelt, EEB Professor Henrique Stodieck.[17]

Tourism and lifestyle[edit]

 
Beachfront Castaway
 
Lagoa do Peri
 
Hercilio Luz Bridge
 
Beira-Mar Avenue
 
Palace Cruz and Sousa

Florianópolis is one of the most visited places in Brazil as it is an island with 42 beaches, lagoons, waterfalls and great infrastructure. The city used to be a hippie destination, but now attracts a wide variety of Brazilian and foreign tourists as it offers wild nature as well as fancy hotels, resorts, charming hostels, beach clubs and lively nightlife. The city is outstanding in Brazil for having high safety standards, quality of life and eco friendly policies.

Lagoa da Conceição (Lagoon of Conceição) is definitely the most visited area of the island by foreign travelers and backpackers. The area has the highest concentration of restaurants, bars, organic markets and shops. Many expats and Brazilian people from other cities choose to live by the lagoon because of its stunning views, safety, nature and quality of life.

The lagoon is surrounded by mountains and has a canal linking to the ocean. It is a place where you can practice many sports, kite surfing, paragliding, sandboard, kayak, trekking. The History of the region around the lagoon is a plus with all the folklore, netting tradition, old Portuguese architecture, graffiti, and a charming 18th century church on the top of the hill. See panoramic view below.

The Holy Spirit Feast (Festa do Divino) is a festival that takes place 40 days after Easter. The celebration dates to the colonial era and includes a parade, music, and street food.

Praia Mole (Mole Beach) One of the most famous beaches is Praia Mole, few meters from the Lagoon of Conceição and noted for its rolling green hills and rock formations on either side. The beach is mostly known for surfing, eco friendly lounges and gay scene during the summer. The beach is one of the locations for the ASP World Tour of the Association of Surfing Professionals, which classifies 50 competitors, among professionals and amateurs. The state of Santa Caterina is the only location in South America for this surfing event. Santa Catarina Art Museum is located in the city.

Joaquina Beach (Praia da Joaquina) Won fame as of the 1970s, when surfers from around the world discovered its waves. Joaquina Beach is accessible from the Lagoon of Conceição. Many surf cups began to emerge, and great Catarinense surfing personalities. It is one of the beaches that offers the best tourist facilities, receiving a large number of tourists from around Brazil and the world on the warm days in spring and summer. The rock complex situated to the left of the beach, the night lighting and the public showers are some of the trademarks at Joaquina. There is a big paid parking lot, toilets, tourist coach parking lot, lifeguards, police station, handicraft shop, bars, restaurant and hotels. In addition to the beach, it is possible to enjoy the most famous dunes in the South of the country as well as to sand board. The boards used in this sport can be rented on the spot.

Barra da Lagoa Barra da Lagoa is a quaint fisherman's village but the physical characteristics of the beach make it the perfect place to learn to surf. It is a cove on the Eastern part of the island and stretches into Moçambique beach for 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). It is in a natural setting as there are no huge hotels on the beach and the Southern headquarters of Projeto TAMAR (Save the Turtles) is located here. Penguins swim into the canal and near the beach of Barra da Lagoa during the colder winter months of June, July and August. The canal at Barra da Lagoa connects the Lagoa da Conceição with the open sea. It is not uncommon to see fishermen during the night tossing their nets in the lagoa to catch shrimp they sell to the fresh fish restaurants in this community.

Ingleses Beach (Praia dos Ingleses) Even though it is a beach preferred by tourists, Ingleses still keeps to the traditions of the Azorian colonizers. In the summer, it is one of the top beach destinations of Argentine tourists, second only to Canasveiras. In the winter, mullet fishing, religious celebrations and regional festivities are beautiful demonstrations of the local culture. The dunes separating the Ingleses Beach (English Beach) from the Santinho Beach are natural attractions not to be missed. The practice of sand board is quite common there, a sport created in Florianópolis, which consists of sliding down the dunes on a board, engaging or not in radical manoeuvres. To practice it, one must have a lot of balance and rent a board. Those looking for a different outing can go on a trek of 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) over the dunes.

Armação Beach (Praia da Armação) The Sant'Anna Church, built by the Armação fishing company, is part of the beach's history. It was from there that whale harpooners and crewmen confessed and attended the mass before going fishing. Next, the priest would go down to the beach to bless the boats that would sail out to sea. Today, the boats leave there for Ilha do Campeche, one of the most visited islands around Florianópolis. It is also in Armação that one finds one of the most important archaeological sites of the State of Santa Catarina. In the winter of 2010 a significant portion of the beach disappeared due to erosion. With financial aid from the Brazilian federal government, tons of large rocks were dumped on the beach to prevent houses from destruction.

Campeche Beach (Praia do Campeche) With 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) of white sands and a turbulent waters, Campeche is considered the Jeffreys Bay of the Santa Catarina Island for the quality of its waves. For those who are not interested in surfing, the beach offers other attractions. The paradisaical beauty of Ilha do Campeche, for instance, located across from the beach, a football game on the Saint-Exupéry aviation field, or even fishing, are some of the leisure alternatives. At night, Campeche is also an excellent attraction. The huge reflector that illuminates part of the large sand strip in front of the bars only contributes to the partying that extends far into the night. The illumination favours both those who enjoy the merrymaking as well as the fishermen, who use the time to drag their nets in from the sea.

Santinho Beach (Praia do Santinho) is mainly sought by tourists who look for nature, the location's paradisaical beauty and tranquility. Surfers are the main visitors and consider Santinho to be the best beach in the North of the Santa Catarina Island. It is in the left hand corner, where bathers do not venture, that surfers practice their sport, sharing the space with fishermen. 40 kilometres (25 mi) away from the centre of Florianópolis, another great attraction of this beach are the primitive inscriptions made by hunters, fishermen and collectors inhabiting the Island five thousand years ago. The name Santinho comes from a human figure engraved on an isolated block of rock.

Outdoor sports, including divinghang glidingrowingparagliding, and mountain biking, as well as surfing, are popular on the island.

The island is connected to the Continent by three bridges. The Hercílio Luz Bridge that was built in 1926, this bridge is 11 years older than Golden Gate Bridge, but is now closed to traffic; it is a symbol of the island and often appears on postcard images. The Colombo Sales Bridge and Pedro Ivo Bridge are the ones open to traffic.

Santo Amaro da Imperatriz was the first thermal water facility in Brazil. Hotels with thermal bath facilities are located in the district of Caldas da Imperatriz and in the city of Águas Mornas. The Fonte Caldas da Imperatriz city baths are an additional source of thermal waters, which can reach the temperature of 39 °C (102 °F), where there are immersion baths and hydromassage. It is located on the Estrada Geral Highway, km 4, Caldas da Imperatriz district.

 
Panoramic view of the lagoon of Conceição.

Areas of the city[edit]

 
Public Market

The centre of Florianópolis, with its alleys, rows of typical houseschurches and museums, contains many examples of colonial architecture. Amongst these are the former government palace, nowadays the Cruz e Souza Museum (which took its name from the famous poet from Santa Catarina who formed the symbolist movement) and the Public Market built in 1898 which sells food and local handicraftsunder the shade of a one-hundred-year-old fig tree. Close to the centre is the house where Victor Meirelles was born, one of the authors who devised the first mass spoken in Brazil. The building is registered by the Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage and houses the Victor Meirelles Museum.

Roughly saying, the island can be divided in two sectors: in the north is the most visited side by tourists and because of that, the busiest and with the best services infrastructure. In some quarters notice a strong influence in the population architecture and customs. The most ancient livers of Florianópolis still have in the way they speak, in the craftwork activities and in the popular parties, the heritage left by immigrants from Portuguese islands from Azores. The south of the island preserved intensely Azorean customs that arrived there from the 18th century.[18]

Transportation[edit]

 
Pluna Bombardier CRJ-900 atHercílio Luz International Airport (FLN). The airline ceased operations in 2012.
 
Florianópolis' Pedro Ivo CamposBridge

International airport[edit]

Florianópolis is served by Hercílio Luz International Airport for both domestic and international flights.[19] The traffic has grown significantly at the airport and therefore the city will shortly receive a new airport able to serve 2.7 million passengers a year. The architectural design of the new airport was chosen by a public competition held by Infraero in partnership with the Brazilian Architects Institute (IAB). Among the over 150 original entries, the proposal of São Paulo architect Mário Bizelli was chosen. Normally the projects for expansion and modernization of the 66 airports administered by Infraero are done by public tender based on the needs, criteria and conditions presented by the company's engineering area. On days when one of the two the local football (soccer) teams plays at home in a stadium near the airport, traffic comes to a complete standstill, often preventing vehicles from departing the airport itself. People with departing flights are well advised to check the local football schedule to ensure they arrive at the airport on time.

Highways[edit]

Florianópolis is connected to the main cities of Brazil:

  • From the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro: BR-116/ BR-376/ BR-101/ BR-282;
  • From Curitiba: BR-376/ BR-101/ BR-282;
  • From Porto Alegre: BR-290/ BR-101/ BR-282.

Bus terminal (connecting to other cities)[edit]

Rita Maria is the city's main bus terminal, located by the Pedro Ivo Campos Bridge, on the island, serving ten thousand people daily, which can reach up to fifteen thousand during the summer season. The bus terminal connects Florianópolis to the majority of the cities, towns and villages of Santa Catarina, and to the main cities in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions of Brazil. As an international bus terminal, Florianopolitanos and tourists alike use Rita Maria also to reach ArgentinaParaguayUruguay and Chile.[20]

Bus terminal (within the city)[edit]

Numerous bus terminals link the neighborhoods of Florianópolis.

  • TICAN (Canasvieras) serves the northern beach towns on the island
  • TISAN (Santo Antônio de Lisboa) serves the northwestern part of the island
  • TICEN (Centro) is in the downtown area and has the most bus traffic. It can get you to anywhere on the island
  • TITRI (Trindade) is a connector in the northern area around downtown serving the west coast of the island
  • TILAG (Lagoa) is a terminal that connects you to the eastern beach areas and the town of Lagoa da Conceição
  • TIRIO (Rio Tavares) connects you to the southern area of the island

Cycleway[edit]

Pedala Floripa project is a University pro bicycle program developed by CICLOBRASIL group in the State University of Santa Catarina. The project aims to provide bicycle infra-structure projects and promote bicycle use for leisure and transport in the city.[21]

Distances[edit]

Neighborhoods[edit]

 
Lagoa da Conceição seen from Ratones trail
 
Ingleses Beach

There are more than 40 neighborhoods in Florianópolis:

  • Abraão;
  • Agronômica;
  • Barra da Lagoa
  • Bom Abrigo;
  • Cachoeira do Bom Jesus;
  • Cacupé;
  • Campeche;
  • Canasvieiras;
  • Canto da Lagoa;
  • Capoeiras;
  • Carianos;
  • Carvoeira;
  • Centro;
  • Chácara do Espanha;
  • Coqueiros;
  • Córrego Grande;
  • Costa da Lagoa;
  • Costa de Dentro;
  • Costeira do Pirajubaé;
  • Estreito;
  • Ingleses do Rio Vermelho;
  • Itacorubi;
  • Itaguaçu;
  • Jardim Atlântico;
  • João Paulo;
  • José Mendes;
  • Jurerê Internacional;
  • Jurerê;
  • Lagoa da Conceição;
  • Moçambique;
  • Monte Verde;
  • Morro das Pedras;
  • Pantanal;
  • Pântano do Sul;
  • Parque São Jorge;
  • Ponta das Canas;
  • Prainha;
  • Ratones;
  • Rio Vermelho;
  • Ribeirão da Ilha;
  • Saco dos Limões;
  • Saco Grande;
  • Sambaqui;
  • Santa Mônica;
  • Santo Antônio de Lisboa;
  • Tapera;
  • Trindade;
  • Vargem do Bom Jesus;
  • Vargem Grande.

Sports[edit]

 
People walking
 
Joaquina Surfing Beach

There are two professional football teams in the city. The derby between them is known as "O Clássico da Capital" ("The Capital's Classic").

Avaí FC – blue and white. It is also known as O Leão da Ilha ("The Lion of the Island"). Its stadium is the Aderbal Ramos da Silva, popularly known as Ressacada, located in the Carianos neighborhood, in the south part of the island. Avaí is currently playing the Brazilian national second division and holds 16 State Championship titles, the record for most titles won.

Figueirense FC – black and white. Its nickname is Figueira and it is also known as O Furacão do Estreito. Its stadium is the Estádio Orlando Scarpelli|Orlando Scarpelli, located in the Estreito neighborhood, in the continental part of the city. Figueirense is currently playing the Brazilian national first division. The team has won Santa Catarina State Championship 16 times, holding the record for most titles won along with Avaí.

Florianópolis, is the home of Desterro Rugby Clube. Desterro has male and female rugby teams competing in the Brasil Super 10 (Men's 15s) competition and the Super 7s (women's 7s).

Florianópolis, since the beginning of the 20th century has a tradition in rowing. By the middle of that century the sport was growing in Brazil and the city had a big influence on it. But, with the decline of the sport in the country by the late 1980s, the investment slowed and by today is almost none. But is still served with three great schools, Riachuelo Remo, Martinelli Remo and Aldo Luz Remo, with all three being placed between Hercílio Luz Bridge, Colombo Salles Bridge and Pedro Ivo Campos Bridge. Since the beginning of 2008 the sport is watching a rapid growing in the number of rowers, even with people flocking from other cities to experience Floripa's rowing.

Florianópolis is the hometown of tennis player Gustavo Kuerten. There are various opportunities to practice yoga in Florianopolis with studios that host international yoga retreats and provide teacher-training courses. Sandboarding is possible in the sand dunes near Joaquina beach. Kitesurfing and Windsurfing are possible in the Lagoa da Conceição lagoon.

The island is generally considered to be blessed with the best and most consistent Surfing waves in Brazil, and in early November of each year hosts what is currently South America's only Association of Surfing Professionals World Championship Tour professional surfing competition. Brazil has played host to many an ASP tour event over the past 30 years. Former contest sites include Rio de Janeiro, Barra de Tijuca and Saquarema, but the past four years have seen the tour set up shop in Florianopolis.

Falling towards the end of the tour, the past few years have seen several ASP world champions crowned in Brazil. In 2004 it was Andy Irons, and in 2005 it was Kelly Slater (who had his 2006 ASP World Title already stitched up by Brazil).

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Florianópolis is twinned with the following cities:

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ "IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística".www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
  2. Jump up^ "Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil". 2015-07-17. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
  3. Jump up^ King, Tayfun (2 October 2009). "Brazil's bid for tech-powered economy"BBC Click (British Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  4. Jump up^ Sherwood, Seth (8 January 2009). "The Place to Be: Florianópolis, Brazil"The New York Times. Retrieved3 December 2014.
  5. Jump up^ Foroohar, Rana (2 July 2006). "The Ten Most Dynamic Cities"Newsweek. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  6. Jump up^ "Veja o que fazer em Florianópolis e se encante!"Mundo Positivo (in Portuguese). 11 April 2014. Retrieved 3 December2014.
  7. Jump up^ "The magic island". Centro de Informática e Automação do Estado de Santa Catarina. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  8. Jump up to:a b c "Normais climatológicas do Brasil 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved5 September 2014.
  9. Jump up^ "Florianopolis". A Place in the South. 11 May 2008. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2014.[circular reference]
  10. Jump up^ "Cultura Açoriana". Visite Floripa. Archived from the originalon 5 January 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  11. Jump up^ Economy of Florianópolis – City Hall Website Archived 10 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. Jump up^ "Florianópolis - A ilha da tecnologia - Região ganha status de Vale do Silício brasileiro"Dinheiro na Web (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 6 April 2003. Retrieved3 December 2014.
  13. Jump up^ Brazilians and Argentines in Floripa – City Hall WebsiteArchived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. Jump up^ Information Technology in Floripa – City Hall WebsiteArchived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. Jump up^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Florianópolis, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  16. Jump up^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Florianópolis, Brazil: IBGE. 2005. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 18 July 2007.
  17. Jump up^ "50 melhores escolas de Florianópolis (SC)"UOL Educação(in Portuguese). 4 April 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  18. Jump up^ "A Cidade - História"Guia Floripa (in Portuguese). Retrieved4 December 2014.
  19. Jump up^ "Aeroporto Internacional de Florianópolis/Hercílio Luz" (in Portuguese). Infraero. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  20. Jump up^ Bus Terminal of Florianópolis
  21. Jump up^ Bicycle program in Florianópolis

Ilha Grande

Ilha Grande

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
For the city in Piauí, see Ilha Grande, Piauí.
Ilha Grande
View Ilha Grande.JPG
View of Ilha Grande from the mainland
Ilha Grande topographic map-EN.png
English topographic map of Ilha Grande
Geography
Location Atlantic Ocean
Area 193 km2 (75 sq mi)
Highest elevation 1,031 m (3,383 ft)
Highest point Pico da Pedra D'Água
Administration
Brazil
Municipality Angra dos Reis
State Rio de Janeiro
Demographics
Population ~5000 (2014)

Ilha Grande (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈiʎɐ ˈɡɾɐ̃dʒi] "Big Island") is an island located off the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The island, which is part of the municipality of Angra dos Reis, remains largely undeveloped. For almost a century it was closed by the Brazilian government to free movement or settlement because it first housed a leper colony and then a top-security prison. Cândido Mendes high-security prison housed some of the most dangerous prisoners within the Brazilian penal system. It was closed in 1994. The largest village on the island is called Vila do Abraão with approximately 1900 inhabitants.

The island, which is 193 km2 (75 sq mi) in area, is now a popular tourist destination that is noted for its scenic beauty, unspoilt tropical beaches, luxuriant vegetation and rugged landscape. The highest point is the 1,031 m (3,383 ft) Pico da Pedra D'Água. Most of its territory is within the Ilha Grande State Park. The remainder of the island is subject to stringent development restrictions.

 

 

Fauna & flora[edit]

Ilha Grande is one of the most pristine remnants of Brazil's Atlantic rainforest making it one of the richest ecosystems in the world. As a hotspot for biodiversity and conservation, it holds some of the largest remaining populations of many endangered species, including the red-ruffed fruitcrow (Pyroderus scutatus), the brown howler monkey (Alouatta fusca), the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) the red-browed amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha), and the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris). The seas around the island, which are also protected, feature a unique convergence of tropical, subtropical, and temperate-zone marine life, and may be the only waters in the world where it is possible to see corals and tropical fish along with Magellanic penguins and southern right whales.

The islands is contained within the 12,400 hectares (31,000 acres) Tamoios Environmental Protection Area (APA), created in 1982.[1] The island (and APA) contains the Aventureiro Sustainable Development Reserve, created in 2014 from the former Aventureiro Marine State Park, which was integrated with the Praia do Sul Biological Reserve.[2] 62.5% of the island is covered by the Ilha Grande State Park, making a total of 87% of the island protected.[3]

Tourism industry[edit]

Small-scale ecotourism is being encouraged on the island. Although it has no roads and motorised vehicles banned, the island has more than 150 km (93 mi) of hiking trails connecting all the coastal villages and hamlets. Lodgings have been made available near many of island's 100 unspoilt beaches. One of the most popular activities for visitors is to trek to Lopes Mendes beach, about a two-hour hike from Abraao. Travel companies are now offering sight-seeing trips to see the island's various beaches, mountains trails and waterfalls.

Most of the visitor facilities and the park headquarters are located at Vila do Abraão. The village may be reached from the mainland by local ferries and fast catamarans. On January 1, 2010 devastating mudslides killed at least 19 people on the island.[4]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ APA de Tamoios (in Portuguese), INEA: Instituto Estadual do Ambiente, retrieved 2016-09-26
  2. Jump up ^ PES Marinho do Aventureiro (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-09-23
  3. Jump up ^ "Parque Estadual da Ilha Grande - Angra dos Reis - RJ"Ilhagrande.org (in Portuguese), retrieved 2016-09-23
  4. Jump up ^ "Mudslide in Brazil resort kills at least 19 people"BBC NEWS. 2 January 2010.

External links[edit]

Coordinates23°09′S 44°14′W

Ilhabela

Ilhabela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Ilhabela
View of Pereque Beach from ferry-boat
View of Pereque Beach from ferry-boat
Flag of Ilhabela
Flag
Official seal of Ilhabela
Seal
Nickname(s): IlhabelaCapital da Vela(IlhabelaCapital of Sailing)
Motto: Ilhabela da Princesa
Location in the state of São Paulo and in Brazil
Location in the state of São Paulo and in Brazil
Coordinates: 23°48′54″S 45°22′14″WCoordinates23°48′54″S 45°22′14″W
Country Brazil
Region Southeast
State São Paulo
Settled September 3, 1805
Government
 • Mayor Toninho Colucci (PPS)
Area
 • Total 347.52 km2 (134.18 sq mi)
Elevation 0-1,378 m (0-4,521 ft)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 32,197
 • Density 93/km2 (240/sq mi)
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
Postal Code 11630-000
Area code(s) +55 12
HDI (2000) 0.781 – medium[2]
Website Prefeitura Municipal de Ilhabela

Ilhabela (Portuguese for Beautiful Island) is an archipelago and city situated in the Atlantic Ocean four miles (6 kilometres) off the coast of São Paulo state in Brazil. The city is 205 km (127 mi) from the city of São Pauloand 340 km (210 mi) from the city of Rio de Janeiro. The largest island, although commonly called Ilhabela, is officially named Ilha de São Sebastião (St. Sebastian Island). It, the other islands (BúziosPescadores and Vitória) and the islets (CabrasCastelhanosEnchovasFigueiraLagoa and Serraria) make up the municipality of Ilhabela.

Ilhabela is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte.[3] The population is 32,197 (2015 est.).[1] The islands in total cover 347.52 km2 (134.18 sq mi).[1] During the holiday months, up to one hundred thousand people may be on the island,[4] since it is a popular destination for tourists. To access the city, one must take a boat or ferry in São Sebastião, as there are no roads which reach it. During the summer, one may wait several hours to take the ferry boat. The ferry takes 15 minutes to cross the channel between the two cities.

 

 

History[edit]

Before Portugal colonized Brazil in 1500, an indigenous tribe called the Tupinambas, inhabited the island. They called the island 'Ciribai', which means tranquil place.

The island was named São Sebastião Island by Amerigo Vespucci, on January 20, 1502. During the 16th century, the Portuguese set up military points on the shore of São Sebastião Island.

In August 1591, notorious British explorer Thomas Cavendish spent some time in the island. He was on an expedition to the south of the Strait of Magellan accompanied by navigator John Davis and then returned to Brazil, where they hid and refueled in Ilhabela and looted Santos and São Vicente.[5]

On September 3, 1805, the Governor of the Province of São Paulo, Antônio José da França e Horta, decreted the political-administrative independence of the county. The Island had already 3.000 inhabitants at that time. The new county was named Villa Bella da Princeza, paying homage to the princess of Beira.

On November 30, 1938, during the Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo, an act altered the name of the county to Formosa. Six years later, on November 30, 1944, another act ultimately changed the name to Ilhabela.

Since the second half of the 20th century, the city is a popular touristic destination. Among the current critical issues of the island, is the lack of proper sewage pipes to collect all houses' wastewater. As of January 2012, 46,6% of the buildings in the island lacked such infrastructure.[6] In February 2016, the city hall announced R$12 million to be invested in sewer systems for the southern part of the city. By the time it was announced, Ilhabela was the worst coastal municipality in the state of São Paulo in terms of sanitary treatment, according to a research by the State Secretary of the Environment - 35% of the city's sewer is collected, pre-conditioned and released on the sea, according to the secretary, while the city hall claims 61% of the city is covered by sewer systems.[7]

Geography[edit]

 
Vitória (left) and Búzios (right) islands seen from the South.
File:Tangará Wikipédia.theora.ogg
 
Blue manakin in Ilhabela
 
Pico do Baepi (Baepi's Peak)

The municipality comprises the main island, Ilha de São Sebastião, and three smaller inhabited islands: Buzios and Vitória islands, 7½ and 2½ km away from the northeastern tip of the main island, respectively, and Pescadores Island, near Vitória Island. Buzios and Vitória are home to 142 and 50 caiçaras, respectively.[8] There are also the very small islets (das Cabras, da Sumítica, da Serraria, dos Castelhanos, da Lagoa, da Figueira e das Enchovas islands). Almost all the urbanized areas are in the very narrow plains between the sea and the mountains of the main island, preferably at the west part of the island, facing the continent.

A short (30 km) but high mountain range forms this main island, reaching above 1,000 meters in seven different points - Pico de São Sebastião (1,378 m), Morro do Papagaio (1,307 m), Pico da Serraria (1,285 m), Morro do Ramalho (1,205 m), Morro do Simão (1,102 m), Morro das Tocas 1,079 m) and Pico do Baepi (1,048 m). Running approximately 8 km into the Atlantic Ocean off the southeast corner of the island, there is the Península do Boi (Ox Peninsula). The east side of the island is inhabited by very few people, who concentrates mainly on the Castelhanos beach, the only on this side accessible by road. Only 4x4 jeeps are able to cross this particular road, though.[9])

Most of the city has a humid subtropical climate, but the mountains have an oceanic climate, because of the high altitude. The Atlantic Forest covers the entire city.

Tourism[edit]

 
Bryde's whale breaching in Castelhanos Bay

Ilhabela is a popular sailing point.[4][10] Several regattas take place at the city's coast.[10] Also, it is popular for many other watersports, including scuba and free diving.[10] The waters around the archipelago are filled with more than 50 shipwrecks, six of them being opened for visiting via diving.[11] Cetacean diversity is rich in the areas, and whale watchings targeting such as humpback whales,[12] bryde's whales,[13][14][15] minke whales,[16][17] southern right whales,[18][19][20] orcas,[21][22][23][24][25] and dolphins are also available.

There are many hiking trails with varying degrees of difficulty and 360 waterfalls[11] in the Atlantic jungle.

Beaches[edit]

There are 41 beaches on the main island.[9] The ones located along the channel are in general urbanized and feature calm to moderate waves. The ones facing the ocean are clean and less affected by humans, besides featuring stronger waves, which attracts surfers.[9] These can only be reached by foot and/or by boat, the exception being Castelhanos, as explained above. Bonete was considered the ninth best beach of Brazil by The Guardian.[26] Starting from Castelhanos and going counterclockwise, the beaches are:

  • dos Castelhanos
  • Saco do Eustáquio
  • Guanxuma
  • da Caveira
  • da Serraria
  • do Poço
  • da Fome
  • Jabaquara
  • Pacuíba
  • da Armação
  • do Pinto
  • da Ponta Azeda
  • Pedra do Sino
  • do Arrozal
  • Siriúba
  • do Viana
  • Mercedes
  • Saco do Indaiá
  • Saco Grande
  • Saco da Capela
  • Pequeá
  • Engenho d'Água
  • Itaquanduba
  • Itaguassu
  • Perequê
  • Barra Velha
  • da Pedra Miúda
  • do Oscar
  • do Portinho
  • Feiticeira
  • do Julião or Prainha
  • Grande
  • do Curral
  • do Veloso
  • Bonete
  • Enchovas
  • Indaiúba
  • Saco do Sombrio
  • da Figueira
  • Vermelha
  • Mansa

Transportation[edit]

Ilhabela is located in Atlantic Ocean
Ilhabela
Ilhabela
 
Location of Ilhabela in the Atlantic Ocean

The only way to access the island by car is via the ferry boats that cross the channel. Each boat carries up to 70 vehicles and takes 15 minutes to sail through the 2.4 kilometers that separate the two stations.

The SP-131 is the main road on the main island, running from the southwestern coast of the island to its northern coast (both these edges are paved since 2008). The road has three different names throughout its path.

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to: a b c Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
  2. Jump up ^ Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano - Municipal, 1991 e 2000 - Todos os municípios do Brasil - UNDP
  3. Jump up ^ Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de São Paulo, Lei Complementar Nº 1.166
  4. Jump up to: a b Bueno, Chris (1 June 2010). "Ilhabela: Conheça as belezas da maior ilha marítima brasileira!" (in Portuguese). 360 Graus. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  5. Jump up ^ Dória, Palmério (2013). ""Só um bobo dá a telefonia para estrangeiros"". O Príncipe da Privataria (in Portuguese) (1 ed.). São Paulo: Geração Editorial. p. 274. ISBN 978-85-8130-201-0.
  6. Jump up ^ Geraque, Eduardo; Talita Bedinelli; Daniel Marenco (29 January 2012). "Esgoto de 31 mil casas do litoral vão parar no mar". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Ilhabela. p. C5.
  7. Jump up ^ "Rede de esgoto chega ao sul de Ilhabela com investimento de R$ 12 milhões"Nova Imprensa. 18 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  8. Jump up ^ da Silva, José Benedito (8 January 2012). "Falta de tudo, menos quem tenha Oliveira no sobrenome" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo.
  9. Jump up to: a b c Nogueira, Kiko (2007). Guia Quatro Rodas Praias 2007 (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Editora Abril. p. 92.
  10. Jump up to: a b c Santos, Raquel. "Capital da vela é destino certo para todos os gostos e idades" (in Portuguese). Guia do Litoral. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  11. Jump up to: a b "Ilhabela at Brasil Turismo". Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  12. Jump up ^ "Baleias encontradas em Ilha Bela Litoral São Paulo". YouTube. 2015-09-01. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  13. Jump up ^ "Baleias e golfinhos em Ilhabela". YouTube. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  14. Jump up ^ "Baleias no nascer do sol Ilhabela 31 12 12". YouTube. 2013-01-09. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  15. Jump up ^ "Ponta De Sepituba - Ilhabela - Pescaria Com Visita De Uma Baleia". YouTube. 2009-12-30. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  16. Jump up ^ "Baleia Minke". YouTube. 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  17. Jump up ^ "Regata Ilhabela Santos 2010 foi acompanhada por Baleias e Golfinhos.". YouTube. 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  18. Jump up ^ "Baleias em Ilha Bela". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  19. Jump up ^ "Baleia durante a travessia da balsa - Ilhabela". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  20. Jump up ^ "Canal de Ilhabela com baleia e filhote". YouTube. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  21. Jump up ^ "Baleias Orcas em Ilhabela". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  22. Jump up ^ "Orca em Ilhabela". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  23. Jump up ^ "Baleias em Ilhabela". YouTube. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  24. Jump up ^ "Baleia Orca". YouTube. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  25. Jump up ^ "Orcas em Ilhabela 2". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  26. Jump up ^ McOwan, Gavin (15 April 2009). "Top 10 beaches in Brazil". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 August 2012.

External links[edit]

 

Morro de São Paulo

Morro de São Paulo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Morro de São Paulo
Village
View of Morro de São Paulo, Bahia
View of Morro de São Paulo, Bahia
Morro de São Paulo is located in Brazil
Morro de São Paulo
Morro de São Paulo
Location of Morro de São Paulo in the State of Bahia
Coordinates: 13°22′54″S 38°54′50″WCoordinates13°22′54″S 38°54′50″W
Country  Brazil
Region Northeast
State Bandeira da Bahia.svg Bahia
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
Postal Code 45400000
Website www.morrodesaopaulo.org.br
 
Morro de São Paulo.

Morro de São Paulo (translation: St. Paul's Hill) is one of 5 villages of the island Tinharé in the municipality of CairuBahiaBrazil.

 

 

History[edit]

Martim Afonso de Sousa, landed in 1531 and baptized this island “Tynharéa” and the Bahian accent soon transformed that name to “Tinharé”.

Tinharé Island is situated to the north of the Camamu Bay archipelago, South of Bahia, a region known as Tabuleiro Valenciano or better still, the Coast of Dendê. Due to its distinct geographical location, the island was subject to innumerable attacks by French and Dutch ships, a true free land for pirates during the colonial period.

Under the jurisdiction of São Jorge dos Ilhéus, the land was given to Jorge de Figueiredo Correa by D.João III, and assigned to Francisco Romero for settlement. The constant attacks of the Aymoré Indians and Tupiniquins against the local regional population helped to quickly populate the islands, and in 1535 Morro de São Paulo village was born on the north side of the island.

Morro de São Paulo protected the so-called "barra falsa da Baía de Todos os Santos", strategic entrance to the Itaparica Channel and to the Santo Antônio Fortress (currently named Farol da Barra). Additionally, the Tinharé Channel was essential for delivery of supplies from major production centers to the capital, Salvador. The geographical importance of the island during the colonial period justifies the richness of historical monuments, today protected by the National Historical Patrimony.

Chronology[edit]

1531 Martim Afonso de Sousa lands in the Tinharé Island, which eventually becomes part of the Captaincy of São Jorge dos Ilhéus. D.João III donates the land to Jorge of Figueiredo Correa, who begins settlement.

1535 Francisco Romero and the local population found Morro de São Paulo village, located on the extreme north part of the island.

1624 Commander Johan Van Dortt and his squad land on the island during their route to Salvador.

1628 The Dutch Almirant Pieterzoon Hiyn leads an attack and loots the village.

1630 Governor Diogo Luiz de Oliveira initiates construction of the Fortress.

1728 Completion of the Forte da Ponta Fortress and wall along the island. Defeat of the French Admiral Villegaignon by Portuguese troops.

1746 Construction of Fonte Grande, the largest water supply system of colonial Bahia.

1845 Conclusion of the Church and Santo Antônio Convent, the N. Sra da Luz Chapel.

1855 Engineer Carson finalizes the construction of the lighthouse.

1859 The Royal Family and D. Pedro II. visit the island.

Transportation[edit]

The village is 272 km from the city of Salvador by route and 60 km by sea. The only way to get to the island is by boat or by charter flights that go from the airport of Salvador to the local airstrip or by regular flights to Valença Airport.

External links[edit]

Pipa Beach

Pipa Beach

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Pipa village and the town beach

Pipa Beach (Praia de Pipa in Portuguese) is one of the most famous beaches of Brazil. Located next to city of Natal, the capital city of state of Rio Grande do Norte. Is located more precisely in municipality of Tibau do Sul, exactly 84 km from the capital of the state.

History[edit]

The first maps of the coastline drawn by Portuguese settlers, refer to Pipa Beach as Orotapiry, or "White man's village." In 1626, the beach became known as Itacoatiara, meaning "the painted cliff", later becoming Ponta do Cabo Verde ("Green Headland"), and is now Praia da Pipa, or "Pipa Beach", which means "Kite Beach".

Pipa was a small fishing village until the 1970s. Then it was discovered by surfers and backpackers, attracted by a set of natural attributes rarely found even in other Brazilian beaches: crystal-clear waters, fine, white sand, areas of preservation Atlantic Forest, 10-meter-high vertical cliffs, and friendly locals. However, one should be very careful with the strong currents in the sea and the huge waves loved by the surfers but really dangerous for those willing to enjoy these warm waters.

 
Praia Chapadão

After the Brazilians, it was the foreign visitors who discovered Pipa, which grew very fast. Soon, it became not only one of the most popular beaches in Brazil, but also one of the most cosmopolitan.

Today, many businesses in Pipa are run by foreigners who visited the town and decided to stay. Pipa, still small in area (expansion is limited by law, with the creation of Environmental Protected Areas around the village), has a high density of hotels, restaurants, bars and other tourism-oriented businesses.

Success has also brought problems to the community. The large influx of visitors and new dwellers was not matched by investments in infrastructure. Transit is slow, public sewage is not well established, prices are high and despite attempts of protection by law, the environment is threatened by the expansion. This is due to change as development laws have become even stricter due to the actions of environmentalists and various public works programs such as the construction of a ring road (on existing roads) to ease traffic congestion are going ahead.

 
A panoramic image of Pipa Beach

Coordinates6.227582°S 35.047647°W

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]

Porto de Galinhas

Porto de Galinhas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Porto de Galinhas.
 
Aerial view.

Porto de Galinhas is a beach in the municipality of IpojucaPernambucoBrazil. Porto de Galinhas is a major tourist destination.[1] The beach is famous for its bright-water beaches and the natural pools. It is part of the municipality of Ipojuca, and located 60 kilometers (37 mi) south of the state capital, Recife. The municipality of Ipojuca, where Porto de Galinhas lies, was established on November 12, 1895. 

Origin of name[edit]

According to history the town was called Porto Rico (Puerto Rico) until 1850 when it became a place where people traded slaves to work in the plantations of sugar cane. To evade the control of the illegal transaction, slaves were transported together with guineafowl and passwords were created by traffickers (Portuguese"Tem galinha nova no porto"—"There are new chickens in the port"), hence the origin of the name.[2]

Description[edit]

It has been voted "Best Brazilian Beach" for the eighth time in a row by the readers of Voyage & Tourism Brazilian magazine.[3] According to this magazine, the main reasons given are the beauty of the natural pools (the closest to the coast in all of Brazil), the ecological trails, the hotel infrastructure and the proximity to a large city and the airport in Recife.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ "Porto de Galinhas". Biosfera Brasil Agencia de Turismo Ltda.
  2. Jump up^ "Porto de galinhas: Historia e origem do nome"Porto de galinhas.wordpress.com. Worldpress.com.
  3. Jump up^ "Porto de Galinhas é eleita melhor praia pela oitava vez".

External links[edit]