National park

Caparaó National Park

Caparaó National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Caparaó National Park
Parque Nacional do Caparaó
IUCN category II (national park)
Parque nacional do caparao.jpg
View towards the southern side of the national park
Map showing the location of Caparaó National Park
Map showing the location of Caparaó National Park
Nearest city Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais
Coordinates 20.431°S 41.789°WCoordinates20.431°S 41.789°W
Area 31,800 hectares (79,000 acres)
Designation National park
Created 24 May 1961
Administrator ICMBio

Caparaó National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional do Caparaó) is a national park created in 1961 to protect the Caparaó Mountains, located on the border between Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo states in Brazil. Pico da Bandeira, one of the highest mountains in Brazil, is located there.

 

Contents

  [hide] 

 

Location[edit]

The park was created by decree No. 50146 of 24 May 1961.[1] It was created by President Jânio Quadros with an area of about 33,000 hectares (82,000 acres). The purpose was to protect the natural resources and support ecotourism activities.[2] The park lies in the Serra do Caparaó on the border between the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. It has an area of about 31,800 hectares (79,000 acres), of which 80% is in Espírito Santo.[3] It includes parts of the municipalities of Alto CaparaóAlto JequitibáCaparaó and Espera Feliz in Minas Gerais, and of Dores do Rio PretoDivino de São LourençoIbitiramaIúna and Irupi in Espírito Santo.[1] It became part of the Central Atlantic Forest Ecological Corridor, created in 2002.[4]

Altitude ranges from 997 to 2,890 metres (3,271 to 9,482 ft).[3] The park contains the third highest peak in Brazil, the 2,892 metres (9,488 ft) Pico da Bandeira. Ten other peaks are over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) in altitude. It protects the watersheds of the ItabapoanaItapemirim and Doce rivers.[3] Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in).[1] Average temperatures range from 19 to 22 °C (66 to 72 °F), but in winter (June and July) it is common to have temperatures below freezing at the higher altitudes.[2]

Biota[edit]

The Serra do Caparaó has a very representative area of Atlantic Forest, with unique examples of alpine meadows. The park has several species of endemic and endangered flora and fauna.[3] On the east side in the state of Espírito Santo the vegetation is mainly tropical rain forest. On the dryer west side in Minas Gerais it has tropical rainforest up to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), then high-altitude forest with brushwood up to 2,400 metres (7,900 ft), and above that open fields among the rocky outcrops.[1] Plants at higher regions are adapted to stony soils, frost and ice crusts.[2]

Fauna has suffered from hunting, but the park is still home to endangered species such as southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus).[1]The park also includes species such as the jaguartapirharpy eagleblack-fronted piping guan (Pipile jacutinga) and solitary tinamou (Tinamus solitarius).[2]

Facilities[edit]

There is an entrance to the park in the municipality of Alto Caparaó, Minas Gerais, where the park headquarters are, and in the municipality of Dores do Rio Preto, Espírito Santo.[3] The Minas Gerais entrance was inaugurated in September 1998. The visitor centre has space for exhibitions, and auditorium with capacity for 64 people, toilets, a souvenir shop and snack bar.[1] Access to the park is controlled. Visitors may not bring domestic animals, hunting or fishing equipment, may not collect plants, fruit, animals or stones, and may not use two-wheeled vehicles.[1] There is an extensive network of hiking trails and four camping area for visitors with bathrooms and other facilities.[3]

Notes[edit]

 

Sources[edit]

Chapada Diamantina

Chapada Diamantina National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Chapada Diamantina National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Chapada diamantina.jpg
Escarpments in the park
Map showing the location of Chapada Diamantina National Park
Map showing the location of Chapada Diamantina National Park
Location Bahia, Brasil
Coordinates 12°52′49″S 41°22′20″WCoordinates12°52′49″S 41°22′20″W
Area 152,142 hectares (375,950 acres)
Designation National park
Created 17 September 1985
Administrator ICMBio

The Chapada Diamantina National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina) is a national park in the Chapada Diamantina[a] region of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The terrain is rugged, and mainly covered by flora of the Caatinga biome.

 

 

Location[edit]

The park is in the Caatinga biome, and covers 152,142 hectares (375,950 acres). It was created by decree 91.655 of 17 September 1985, and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.[2]The park covers parts of the municipalities of PalmeirasMucugêLençóisIbicoara and Andaraí in the state of Bahia.[3]

Terrain[edit]

The park is in the Chapada Diamantina, a plateau bounded by cliffs of 41,751 square kilometres (16,120 sq mi) in central Bahia. Altitudes in the plateau typically vary from 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft). In the more mountainous parts there are several peaks of 1,600 to 1,800 metres (5,200 to 5,900 ft), and a few over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). The plateau forms a watershed, draining on one side into the São Francisco River and on the other into the De Contas River and Paraguaçu River.[3]

The park lies in the rugged Sincorá Range in the east of the plateau, an area of folded and heavily eroded structures. The range is elongated in a north-south direction, and has an average width of 25 kilometres (16 mi).[3]The highest point of the state is in the park, the 2,036 metres (6,680 ft) Pico do Barbado. Both gold and diamonds have been found in the range.[4] The range forces moist air moving west from sea upward which causes higher levels of rainfall, particularly in the east.[3] There are many systems of caves formed by the rivers of the region.[1]

Flora and fauna[edit]

 
Typical flora of the Chapada Diamantina

Vegetation includes typical Caatinga xerophytic formations at altitudes from about 500 to 900 metres (1,600 to 3,000 ft), Atlantic Forest vegetation along the watercourses, meadows and rocky fields higher up. Endemic flora include Adamantinia miltonioidesCattleya elongataCattleya tenuisCattleya x tenuataCleites libonni and Cleistes metallina. The hooded visorbearer (Augastes lumachellus) hummingbird is endemic.[3] There are few large mammals, but many species of small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and insects.[1]

Conservation[edit]

The park is classed as IUCN protected area category II (national park). It has the objectives of preserving natural ecosystems of great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, enabling scientific research, environmental education, outdoors recreation and eco-tourism.[3] Protected birds in the reserve include white-necked hawk (Buteogallus lacernulatus), Chaco eagle (Buteogallus coronatus), Bahia tyrannulet (Phylloscartes beckeri), ochre-marked parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) and Bahia spinetail (Synallaxis whitneyi).[2] Other protected species include Barbara Brown's titi (Callicebus barbarabrownae), cougar (Puma concolor), jaguar (Panthera onca), oncilla(Leopardus tigrinus), giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ "Chapada" means an area of steep cliffs, typically at the edge of a plateau. "Diamantina" refers to the diamonds that were found in the range in the mid-19th century.[1]

Sources[edit]

Chapada dos Veadeiros

Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Veadeiros4 leofleck.jpg
Type Natural
Criteria ix, x
Reference 1035
UNESCO region Latin America and the Caribbean
Coordinates 14°05′S 47°40′WCoordinates14°05′S 47°40′W
Inscription history
Inscription 2001 (25th Session)
Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park is located in Brazil
Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park
 
Location of Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park in Brazil.

Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros) is a national park of Brazil located in the Chapada dos Veadeiros, an ancient plateau with an estimated age of 1.8 billion years.[1] Based in the Brazilian state of Goias, the park was created on January 11, 1961 by President Juscelino Kubitscheck, and listed as a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 2001.[2] It occupies an area of 655 square kilometres (253 sq mi) in the municipalities of Alto Paraíso de GoiásCavalcante and Colinas do Sul. The park is maintained by Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.[3]

 

 

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

The average yearly temperature is 24-26 degrees Celsius, ranging from a minimum of 4-8 degrees Celsius and reaching a maximum of 40-42 degrees Celsius.

Altitude[edit]

With altitudes between 600 and 1650 meters, it is the highest plain in Central Brazil. The highest point of the park and of the state of Goiás is Serra da Santana, at 1691 meters above sea level.[4]

Rock formations[edit]

Its rock formations are one of the oldest on the planet. There are quartz with outcrops of crystals. These rocks are exported and appreciated in Japan and England, where for some decades they were used for industrial work. Nowadays therapists and nature lovers seek energies and the power to cure from the crystals and from places like Alto Paraiso.

Rock crystals are present in the soil of the rich cerrado, or open pasture. Forest growth is also still found in the region, where more than 25 species of orchids can be found, besides other Brazilian species such as pau d'arco roxo, copaíba (copa tree), aroeira (California pepper tree), tamanqueira (cork tree), terivá (a variety of palm tree), buritis (wine-palm) and Babaçu (Babassu).

The main river in the park is the Rio Preto, a tributary of the Tocantins River.[2] There are many waterfalls along its course such as the Rio Preto Falls (120 meters high, 80 meters at the base) and the Cariocas Falls. The park is noted for its scenic canyons, with walls of up to 40 metres (130 ft) high and valleys of up to 300 square metres (3,200 sq ft) deep.

List of waterfalls[edit]

 
Rainbow adorns the Salto II waterfall of "Black River"

Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park is noted for its waterfalls. Those which range from 80 to 120 meters include the Corredeiras, Cannyon I, Cannyon II, the Carioquinhas Waterfall and the Jardim de Maitréya. In properties with controlled access: Águas Quentes, Morada do Sol, Banho das Crianças and Vale das Andorinhas, Salto do Raizama and Cannyon do Rio São Miguel, Vale da lua, Cachoeiras Almécegas I and Almécegas II, Cachoeira de São Bento, Cataratas do Rio dos Couros, Cachoeira do Rio Cristal, Cachoeira dos Anjos e dos Arcanjos, Água Fria, Cachoeira do Rio das Almas, Poço Encantado, Sertão Zen, Cachoeira do Rio Macaco, Território Kalunga, Lago Serra da Mesa, Bocaina do Faria, Cachoeira das Neves, Mirante do Pouso Alto, Alpes Goianos, Cachoeira do Santana, Cachoeira da Ave Maria, Morada do Sol, Pedra Escrita, Cachoeira das Pedras Bonitas, Cachoeira Santa Bárbara, Cachoeira Capivara, Cachoeira Candaru, Cachoeiras Barroco, Cachoeiras do Pratinha, Cachoeira Rei do Prata, Cachoeiras do Curriola, Cachoeira do São Bartolomeu, Cachoeiras Veredas, and Ponte de Pedra.

The local fauna[edit]

The rich fauna of the region includes species, some of which are threatened by extinction, such as the pampas deer (locally known as veado campeiro), marsh deer (cervo do pantanal), maned wolves (lobo guará), jaguar, and others like the rhea (ema), seriematapetigiant armadillo (tatu canastra), anteater (tamanduá), capybara (capivara), tapir (anta), green-beaked toucan (tucano de bico verde), black vulture (urubu), and the king vulture (urubu rei).

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ Pinto, Fernanda Iema. "Chapada dos Veadeiros" (in Portuguese). Folha Online. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
  2. Jump up to: a b "Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks". Paris, France: UNESCO. 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-04.
  3. Jump up ^ "Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros" [Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park] (in Portuguese). Brasília, DF, Brazil: Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. 2015. Retrieved 2015-02-13.
  4. Jump up ^ "Chapada dos Veadeiros-Pico 1691, Brazil". Peakbagger.com.

External links[edit]

Ibitipoca

Ibitipoca State Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Ibitipoca State Park
Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca
IUCN category II (national park)
Ibitipoca1.JPG
One of the waterfalls in the park
Map showing the location of Ibitipoca State Park
Map showing the location of Ibitipoca State Park
Nearest city Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais
Coordinates 21.709°S 43.884°WCoordinates21.709°S 43.884°W
Area 1,488 hectares (3,680 acres)
Designation State park
Created 4 July 1973

The Ibitipoca State Park (PortugueseParque Estadual do Ibitipoca) is a forested state park is the state of Minas GeraisBrazil.

 

 

Location[edit]

Ibitipoca State Park has area of 1,488 hectares (3,680 acres) and is situated 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the district of Conceição do Ibitipoca (which is sustained by tourism attracted by the park). It was created on 4 July 1973 and is administered by the Instituto Estadual de Florestas of Minas Gerais. It is in the municipality of Lima Duarte.

Entry to the park is charged and is limited to 300 visitors per day during the week and 800 at weekends and on holidays. Camping is permitted in the park but this is also limited to a certain number of visitors and only in the designated site. The camp site has a restaurant, café and lavatories.

Toponym[edit]

"Ibitipoca" derives from the Tupi and signifies "burst mountain, from the terms ybytyra ("mountain") e pok ("burst"). [1]

Climate and vegetation[edit]

The climate is humid subtropical, with mild rainy summers and dry winters. The park is on an outcrop of quartzite with a shallow soil (Cambisol) layer made up principally of organic material and sand formed by the erosion of the rock. Because of this a large part of the vegetation is Xerophyte, comprising true grasses and low growing herbaceous plants. In the regions where the soil is shallow are bushes, cactuses and bromeliads characteristic of rocky places. The rivers of the park are caramel coloured because of high levels of organic material.

Attractions[edit]

The main attractions are the caves, mountains and waterfalls. The highest point in the park is known as Pico da Lombada and is a little more than 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) above sea level.

Some tourist spots are the Janela do CéuCachoeirinhaPico do PiãoCruzeiroLago dos EspelhosCachoeira dos Macacos and Cachoeira da Pedra Quadrada.

A trip to the park is characterized by long walks—the return walk to the Janela do Céu, for example, is about 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) and The Cachoeirinha is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the camp site. Pico da Lombada has an interesting characteristic: The view from there to the horizon is 360°—one can see to the horizon in whichever direction as no mountain stands in the way.

Access[edit]

Access is by a road of about 27 kilometres (17 mi) off of the main BR-267 road in Lima Duarte to the village of Conceição de Ibitipoca. Part of the track is by dirt road but its steepest stretch between the Fazenda do Engenho and the village is paved as it is in other places. from the village to the park is a further 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) on paved road. In the rainy season this access can be difficult due to poor maintenance of the road.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

Iguazu Falls

Iguazu Falls

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Iguaçu Falls)
 

Iguazu Falls
Iguacu-004.jpg
View of Iguazu Falls
Location ArgentinaMisiones ProvinceBrazilParaná State
Type Cataract
Total height 60–82 metres (197–269 ft)[1]
Number of drops 275[1]
Longest drop 82 metres (269 ft)[1]
Total width 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi)[1]
Watercourse Iguazu River
Average
flow rate
1,756 m3/s (62,010 cu ft/s)[1]

The Iguazu FallsIguazú FallsIguassu Falls, or Iguaçu Falls (Spanish: Cataratas del Iguazú [kataˈɾatas ðel iɣwaˈsu]GuaraniChororo Yguasu [ɕoɾoɾo ɨɣʷasu]PortugueseCataratas do Iguaçu [kataˈɾatɐʒ du iɡwaˈsu]) are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná. They are the largest waterfalls system in the world.[2] The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu. The Iguazu River rises near the city of Curitiba. For most of its course, the river flows through Brazil, however, most of the falls are on the Argentine side. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Argentina and Brazil.

The name "Iguazu" comes from the Guarani or Tupi words "y[ɨ], meaning "water", and "ûasú "[waˈsu], meaning "big".[3]Legend has it that a deity planned to marry a beautiful woman named Naipí, who fled with her mortal lover Tarobá in a canoe. In a rage, the deity sliced the river, creating the waterfalls and condemning the lovers to an eternal fall.[3] The first European to record the existence of the falls was the Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1541.

File:Iguazupan.ogv
 
Video Clip: Panoramic view of the falls from Argentine side

 

 

Geography[edit]

The Iguazu Falls are located where the Iguazu River tumbles over the edge of the Paraná Plateau, 23 kilometres (14 mi) upriver from the Iguazu's confluence with the Paraná River.[1] Numerous islands along the 2.7-kilometre-long (1.7 mi) edge divide the falls into many separate waterfalls and cataracts, varying between 60 to 82 metres (197 to 269 ft) high. The number of these smaller waterfalls fluctuates from 150 to 300, depending on the water level. Approximately half of the river's flow falls into a long and narrow chasm called the Devil's Throat (Garganta del Diablo in Spanish or Garganta do Diabo in Portuguese).[1] The Devil's Throat is U-shaped, 82 by 150 by 700 metres (269 ft × 492 ft × 2,297 ft). Placenames have been given also to many other smaller falls, such as San Martín FallsBossetti Falls, and many others.

About 900 metres (2,950 ft) of the 2.7-kilometre (1.7 mi) length does not have water flowing over it. The edge of the basalt cap recedes by 3 mm (0.1 in) per year. The water of the lower Iguazu collects in a canyon that drains into the Paraná River, a short distance downstream from the Itaipu Dam. The junction of the water flows marks the border between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. There are points in the cities of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, and Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, which have access to the Iguazu River, where the borders of all three nations may be seen, a popular tourist attraction for visitors to the three cities.

Distribution of the falls between Argentina and Brazil[edit]

The Iguazu Falls are arranged in a way that resembles a reversed letter "J". The border between Brazil and Argentina runs through the Devil's Throat. On the right bank is the Brazilian territory, which has just over 20% of the jumps of these falls, and the left side jumps are Argentine, which make up almost 80% of the falls.

Tourism[edit]

There are two international airports close to Iguazú Falls: the Argentine Cataratas del Iguazú International Airport (IGR) and the Brazilian Foz do Iguaçu International Airport (IGU). Argentina's airport is 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the city of Iguazu, but is closer to the falls hotels than its Brazilian counterpart. There are bus and taxi services from and to the Airport-Falls. Brazil's airport is between Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, and the falls. Aerolíneas Argentinas and LAN Airlines have direct flights from Buenos Aires to Iguazu International Airport Krause. AzulGOL, and TAM Airlines offer services from main Brazilian cities to Foz do Iguaçu.

Access[edit]

 
Walkways allow close views of the falls from both Argentina and Brazil.
 
Iguazú Falls from the International Space Station, 2016

The falls may be reached from two main towns, with one on either side of the falls: Puerto Iguazú in Argentina and Foz do Iguaçu in Brazil, as well as from Ciudad del EsteParaguay, on the other side of the Paraná river from Foz do Iguaçu. The falls are shared by the Iguazú National Park (Argentina) and Iguaçu National Park (Brazil). The two parks were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1984 and 1987, respectively.[4]

The first proposal for a Brazilian national park aimed at providing a pristine environment to "future generations", just as "it had been created by God" and endowed with "all possible preservation, from the beautiful to the sublime, from the picturesque to the awesome" and "an unmatched flora" located in the "magnificent Iguaçú waterfalls". These were the words used by André Rebouças, an engineer, in his book "Provinces of Paraná, Railways to Mato Grosso and Bolivia", which started up the campaign aimed at preserving the Iguaçu Falls in 1876. At this time, Yellowstone National Park in the U.S., the first national park in the world, was four years old.

On the Brazilian side, there is a walkway along the canyon with an extension to the lower base of Devil's Throat. Helicopter rides offering aerial views of the falls have been available from Brazil, however, Argentina has prohibited such helicopter tours because of the adverse environmental impact on the flora and fauna of the falls.[5] From Foz do Iguaçu airport, the park may be reached by taking a taxi or bus to the entrance of the park. There is an entrance fee to the park on both sides. Once inside, free and frequent buses are provided to various points within the park. The town of Foz do Iguaçu is approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) away, and the airport is between the park and the town. The Argentine access, across the forest, is by a Rainforest Ecological Train very similar to the one in Disney's Animal Kingdom.[citation needed] The train brings visitors to the entrance of Devil's Throat, as well as the upper and lower trails. The Paseo Garganta del Diablo is a 1-kilometre-long (0.6 mi) trail that brings visitors directly over the falls of Devil's Throat, the highest and deepest of the falls. Other walkways allow access to the elongated stretch of falls across the forest on the Argentine side and to the boats that connect to San Martin Island. Also on the Argentine side, there are inflatable boat services that take visitors very close to the falls.

The Brazilian transportation system aims at allowing the increase in the number of visitors, while reducing the adverse environmental impact, through an increase in the average number of passengers per vehicle inside the park.[citation needed] The new transportation system has 72-passenger capacity, panoramic-view, double-deck buses. The upper deck is open, which enables visitors a broad view of the flora and fauna during the trip to the falls. The bus combustion systems are in compliance with the CONAMA (phase IV) and EURO (phase II) emissions and noise requirements. The reduction in the number of vehicles, of noise levels, and speed, is enabling tourists to observe increasing numbers of wild animals along the route.[citation needed] Each bus has an exclusive paint scheme, representing some of the most common wild animals found in the Iguaçú National Park, including the spotted jaguars, butterflies, raccoons, prego monkeyscoral snakestoucans, parrots, and yellow breasted caimans.

Comparisons to other notable falls[edit]

 
Tourists visiting the spot

Upon seeing Iguazu, the United States First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt reportedly exclaimed "Poor Niagara!"[3] (which, at 50 m or 165 feet, are a third shorter). Often Iguazu also is compared with Victoria Falls in Southern Africa, which separates Zambia and Zimbabwe. Iguazu is wider, but because it is split into approximately 275 discrete falls and large islands, Victoria has the largest curtain of water in the world, at more than 1,600 m (5,249 ft) wide and over 100 m (328 ft) in height (in low flow Victoria is split into five by islands; in high flow it may be uninterrupted). The only wider falls are extremely large rapid-like falls, such as the Boyoma Falls (Stanley Falls).

With the flooding of the Guaíra Falls in 1982, Iguazu currently has the sixth-greatest average annual flow of any waterfall in the world, following Niagara, with an average rate of 1,746 m3/s (61,660 cu ft/s). Its maximum recorded flow was 45,700 m3/s (1,614,000 cu ft/s) in June 9, 2014.[6][7] By comparison, the average flow of Niagara Falls is 2,400 m3/s (85,000 cu ft/s), with a maximum recorded flow of 8,300 m3/s (293,000 cu ft/s).[8] The average flow at Victoria Falls is 1,088 m3/s (38,420 cu ft/s), with a maximum recorded flow of 7,100 m3/s (250,000 cu ft/s).[9]

Climate[edit]

The Iguazu Falls experience a humid subtropical climate (Cfa, according to the Köppen climate classification) with abundant precipitation and high temperatures year-round. During the summer of 2006, a severe drought caused the Iguazu River to become diminished, reducing the amount of water flowing over the falls to 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) until early December. This was unusual, as dry periods normally last only a few weeks.[10]

Gallery[edit]

 
Panorama of the Falls

Portrayals in film[edit]

Iguazu Falls have been featured in several movies,[12] including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to: a b c d e f g "Iguaçu Falls"Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library ed.). 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ Dominic Couzens 2008.
  3. Jump up to: a b c Bonnie Hamre. "Iguazu Falls"About.com Travel.
  4. Jump up ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List"unesco.org.
  5. Jump up ^ "Iguazú Argentina - Portal de las Cataratas del Iguazú". Iguazuargentina.com. Retrieved 2012-04-14.
  6. Jump up ^ Fabiula Wurmeister (June 9, 2014). "Chuvas fazem vazão das Cataratas bater recorde e Itaipu abrir vertedouro". globo.com notícias. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ "Dia histórico nas Cataratas do Iguaçu". Cataratas do Iguaçu S.A. June 10, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ "Niagara Falls". World Waterfall Database. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  9. Jump up ^ "Victoria Falls". World Waterfall Database. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
  10. Jump up ^ "The Kerala Articles"keralaarticles.blogspot.com.
  11. Jump up ^ "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  12. Jump up ^ IMDb. "Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil"". Retrieved 30 October 2010.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Ilha do Mel

Ilha do Mel State Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Ilha do Mel State Park
Parque Estadual da Ilha do Mel
IUCN category II (national park)
Farol da Ilha do Mel.jpg
Lighthouse (farol) at the north tip of the park
Map showing the location of Ilha do Mel State Park
Map showing the location of Ilha do Mel State Park
Location Paranaguá, Paraná
Coordinates 25.5575°S 48.3059°WCoordinates25.5575°S 48.3059°W
Area 393 hectares (970 acres)
Designation State park
Created 21 March 2002
Administrator Instituto Ambiental do Paraná

The Ilha do Mel State Park (PortugueseParque Estadual da Ilha do Mel) is a state park in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

 

Contents

  [hide] 

 

Location[edit]

The Ilha do Mel State Park is in the southern part of the Ilha do Mel (Honey Island) in the east of the municipality of Paranaguá, Paraná. The island, which has an area of about 2,760 hectares (6,800 acres), is at the entrance of Paranaguá Bay on the southern coast of the state of Paraná.[1] The park has an area of about 393 hectares (970 acres).[2] The northern part of the island is protected by the Ilha do Mel Ecological Station. The island is opposite the Superagui National Park to the north.[3] It is in the Iguape-Cananéia-Paranaguá estuary lagoon complex.

The park includes the Praia Grande, Praia de Fora (Encantadas), Praia de Fora (Farol), Praia do Miguel and Prainha do Caraguatá beaches and the area known as Saco do Limoeiro.[4] It may be reached by a 30 minute boat trip from the terminal at Pontal do Sul, or by a 90 minute boat trip from Paranaguá. There are landing piers at Encantadas and at Nova Brasília, which includes the lighthouse and the fort. Visitors may bring bicycles, but no motorized vehicles are allowed.[1]

History[edit]

The Ilha do Mel State Park was created governor Jaime Lerner by state decree 5506 of 21 March 2002 on the Ilha do Mel (Honey Island). The objective was to preserve the natural environment of the beach, the rocky cliffs, areas of marine influence, salt marshes, remnants of dense submontane Atlantic Forest and lowland restinga forest, to protect archaeological sites, particularly the middens, and to protect the rich fauna. Management responsibility was assigned to the Instituto Ambiental do Paraná (Paraná Environment Institute), which had five years to prepare a management plan. Existing residents would be relocated within ten years.[4]

The park is part of the Lagamar Mosaic of conservation units.[5] It one of the conservation units of the Serra do Mar Ecological Corridor (Corredor Ecológico da Serra do Mar).[6] It is also part of the core zone of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve.[7]

Notes[edit]

 

Sources[edit]

Itaimbezinho

Aparados da Serra National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Aparados da Serra National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Itaimbézinho Canyon 2006.jpg
The Itaimbezinho canyon in the national park
Map showing the location of Aparados da Serra National Park
Map showing the location of Aparados da Serra National Park
Coordinates 29°11′S 50°5′WCoordinates29°11′S 50°5′W
Area 102.5 km2
Designation National park
Established 1959
Visitors 38,000 (in 2002[1])
Governing body IBAMA

The Aparados da Serra National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional de Aparados da Serra) is a national park located in the Serra Geral range of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states in the south of Brazil, between 29º07’—29º15’ S and 50º01’—50º10’ W. It has been created in 1959[2] as one of Brazil's first national parks, to protect the Itaimbezinho canyon.[3] It extends over an area of 10,250 hectares.[4]

 

 

Flora and fauna[edit]

Despite its relatively small size, the park is characterised by a rich biodiversity, as result of its diverse relief and of being situated at the contact between coastal forests, grasslands and Araucaria moist forests.[4] There have been at least 143 bird, 48 mammal, and 39 amphibian species documented in the park.[5]

Endangered fauna on the plateaus of the park include the red-spectacled amazon parrot, the maned wolf, and the cougar. On the slopes, the neotropical otterocelot and the brown howling monkey can be found.[4]

Conservation and threats[edit]

When created in 1959, the national park protected an area of 13,000 ha. This has been reduced to 10,250 ha in 1972 through a presidential decree. In 1992 adjoining the national park, the new Serra Geral National Parkhas been created, encompassing an additional 17,300 ha.[6] However, according to the Duke University's Center for Tropical Conservation, the current park area, even after the extension with Serra Geral National Park, is still too small to be effective for the protection of representative samples of each distinct environment.[7]

One of the main obstacles for conservation efforts is that the state only has title over 67.5% of the land, and even part of that is occupied by farmers. Raising cattle, the practice of using fire to "renew" grasslands, the establishment of banana plantations with associated use of pesticides and the presence of domestic animals, all contribute to environmental degradation. Other threats are posed by invasive flora from the areas surrounding the park and poaching.[7]

Currently a maximum of 1,500 visitors per day are allowed in the park.[3]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - Management". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  2. Jump up ^ "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - General information". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  3. Jump up to: a b "Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra Review". Fodors.com. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  4. Jump up to: a b c "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - Summary". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  5. Jump up ^ "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - Biodiversity". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  6. Jump up ^ "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - Geography". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
  7. Jump up to: a b "Duke University ParksWatch: Aparados da Serra NP - Threats". Parkswatch.org. Retrieved June 30, 2011.

External links[edit]

 Media related to Aparados da Serra National Park at Wikimedia Commons

Itatiaia National Park

Itatiaia National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Parque Nacional do Itatiaia)
 
Itatiaia National Park
Parque Nacional do Itatiaia
IUCN category II (national park)
Bela vista no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia.JPG
View in January 2014
Map showing the location of Itatiaia National Park
Map showing the location of Itatiaia National Park
Nearest city Resende, Rio de Janeiro
Coordinates 22.375°S 44.612°WCoordinates22.375°S 44.612°W
Designation National park
Created 14 June 1937
Administrator ICMBio

Itatiaia National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional do Itatiaia), established in 1937, is the oldest national park in Brazil. It is located on the border between the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais.

 

 

Location[edit]

The Itatiaia National Park is the oldest national park of Brazil, created on 14 June 1937 by President Getúlio Vargas. The park is in the Mantiqueira Mountains. It covers parts of the municipalities of Itatiaia and Resende in Rio de Janeiro state, and Bocaina de Minas and Itamonte in Minas Gerais state. It is mountainous and rocky with altitudes ranging from 540 to 2,791 metres (1,772 to 9,157 ft). The highest point is the Black Needles peak (Pico das Agulhas Negras).[1]

The higher part of the park contains the origins of 12 river basins that supply the Rio Grande (Grand River), a tributary of the Paraná River, and the Paraíba do Sul, the most important river in Rio de Janeiro state. The lower part of the park has lush Atlantic Forest vegetation and wide rivers with natural pools and waterfalls.[1]

The Pico das Agulhas Negras is the state' third highest mountain at 2,878 metres (9,442 ft). The park attracts bird watchers from all over the world with its 350 species of birds. Other attractions include hiking and rock climbing. The park is surrounded by the Serra da Mantiqueira Environmental Protection Area which provides an ecological buffer zone for the park.

The high area of the park is accessible through an entrance about 35 km from the main entrance and gives access to the Pico das Agulhas Negras and Prateleiras complex. The low area of the park is much closer to the city of Itatiaiaand has many waterfalls, such as Véu da Noiva with 45 meters. The low area has also a Natural History museum. Itatiaia means "many-pointed rock" in the Tupi language.

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Jorge Pádua, Maria Tereza e Coimbra Filho, Adelmar F. Os Parques Nacionais do Brasil. Instituto de Cooperação Iberoamericana. Madrid. José Olympio Editora, 1989. ISBN 84-85389-19-0, pág. 122 a 129
  • Corrêa, Marcos Sá "Itatiaia - O Caminho das Pedras" São Paulo. Metalivros, 2003. ISBN 85-85371-50-1, 240 pág.
  • Leite, Helton Perillo Ferreira - "Planalto do Itatiaia - Região das Agulhas Negras", Rio de Janeiro. Montanhar / Publit, 2007. Edição parcialmente trilíngue. ISBN 978-85-7773-076-6, 232 páginas.

Itaúnas

Itaúnas State Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Itaúnas State Park
Parque Estadual de Itaúnas
IUCN category II (national park)
ItaunasES2014 09.JPG
Itaúnas sand dunes
Map showing the location of Itaúnas State Park
Map showing the location of Itaúnas State Park
Nearest city Conceição da Barra, Espírito Santo
Coordinates 18.418984°S 39.707455°WCoordinates18.418984°S 39.707455°W
Area 3,481 hectares (8,600 acres)
Designation State park
Administrator IEMA: Instituto Estadual de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos

The Itaúnas State Park (PortugueseParque Estadual de Itaúnas) is a state park in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. It protects the lower reaches of the Itaúnas River and a strip of marshes, dunes and beaches along the Atlantic coast of the north of the state.

 

 

Location[edit]

The Itaúnas State Park is in the municipality of Conceição da Barra, Espírito Santo. It has an area of about 3,481 hectares (8,600 acres).[1] It protects a strip of the Atlantic coast from north of the town of Conceição da Barra, Espírito Santo, up to the border with the state of Bahia.[2] The park is named after the Itaúnas River, which runs through the park for 34 kilometres (21 mi).[3] The river approaches the coast at the settlement of Itaúnas and then runs southwest, parallel to the coast behind a sand bar, before entering the Atlantic Ocean to the north of Conceição da Barra.[2] On the beaches of Itaúnas and Riacho Doce, which extend for 25 kilometres (16 mi), the dunes reach 30 metres (98 ft) in height.[4]

History[edit]

The Itaúnas State Park was created by state governor decree 4.967-E of 8 November 1991.[1] In 1992 the park was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.[5] It became part of the Central Atlantic Forest Ecological Corridor, created in 2002.[6]

Environment[edit]

The park contains 23 archaeological sites with traces of human settlements such as chipped stones, indigenous pottery and artifacts from the colonial era. Vegetation includes coastal forest, with fragments of forest endangered in Espírito Santo, restinga, dunes and estuarine mangroves. The various habitats are in good condition, and have great diversity of plant species, with over 414 species recorded. There are 43 species of mammals, 183 of birds. 32 of reptiles, 29 of amphibians and 101 of fish.[1] Mammals include ocelots, capuchin monkeys and sloths.[4] Threats include illegal fishing, hunting, firewood extraction and fruit collection, the presence of domestic animals such as horses, dogs and oxen, and irregular occupation by squatters.[3]

Activities[edit]

As of 2015 the opening hours were from 8:30 to 17:30.[5] The park is suitable for ecotourism, hiking and swimming in the river and the ocean.[3] Visitors may take guided horseback tours, or may explore by kayak, canoe, jeep, bicycle or on foot. There is a visitor center in the village of Itaúnas, with the headquarters of the Tamar project, which protects sea turtles. The visitor center has a display of archaeological finds, and gives workshops in crafts, local music and painting.[4]

Notes[edit]

 

Sources[edit]

Jalapão State Park

Jalapão State Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Jalapão State Park
Parque Estadual do Jalapão
IUCN category II (national park)
Dunas do Jalapão, em Mateiros.jpg
Dunes and Serra do Espírito Santo
Map showing the location of Jalapão State Park
Map showing the location of Jalapão State Park
Nearest city Palmas, Tocantins
Coordinates 10.359°S 46.699°WCoordinates10.359°S 46.699°W
Area 158,885 hectares (392,610 acres)
Designation State park
Created 12 January 2001
Administrator Instituto Natureza do Tocantins

Jalapão State Park (PortugueseParque Estadual do Jalapão) is a state park in the microregion of Jalapão in eastern TocantinsBrazil. It contains a variety of landscapes including cerrado vegetation, sand dunes and flat-topped plateaus.

 

 

Location[edit]

The Jalapão State Park lies in the municipality of Mateiros, Tocantins, and has an area of 158,885 hectares (392,610 acres).[1] The park covers the Espírito Santo dunes and mountains.[2] It is relatively inaccessible, requiring a drive of about 600 kilometres (370 mi) over dirt roads. It contains flat-topped plateaus bounded by steep cliffs, constantly subject to erosion by rain and wind. Most of the park is in the upper basin of the Do Sono River, including the NovoSoninho and Do Sono rivers. This in turn is part of the Araguaia - Tocantins basin.[1]

Environment[edit]

The park contains dry and wet grassland, campo sujo, strict cerrado, sparse dune vegetation, cerradão, gallery forest, riparian forest and semi-deciduous lacustrine vegetation. Rare species include Annona coriaceaAttalea eichleriChamaecrista oligospermaDitassa acerosaGuettarda vibournoidese and Xylopia aromatica. Economically useful plants include Syngonanthus nitensMauritia flexuosaAnacardium occidentaleAnadenanthera colubrinaAnnona coriaceaAstronium fraxinifoliumBrosimum gaudichaudiiDalbergia miscolobiumEugenia dysentericaHancornia speciosaPterodon pubescens and Stryphnodendron adstringens. The Acosmium subelegansAndira cordata and Parkia platycephala are endemic.[1]

The hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus) is endemic. The rare and endangered Brazilian merganser (Mergus octosetaceus) and Chaco eagle (Buteogallus coronatus) are found in the park.[1][1]

Administration[edit]

The Jalapão State Park was created by state Law 1203 of 12 January 2001.[1] The park is part of the Jalapão ecological corridor, [2] The Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station, one of the core areas of the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve, is also part of this corridor.[3] On 21 July 2009 a technical cooperative agreement was signed between the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) and the Nature Institute of Tocantins for management and conservation of the Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station and the Jalapão State Park. The state park's advisory board was appointed on 15 December 2011.[1]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

Jericoacoara

Jericoacoara Beach

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
Jericoacoara, Ceará, Brazil.

Jericoacoara is a virgin beach hidden behind the dunes of the west coast of Jijoca de JericoacoaraCearáBrazil. Selected by The Washington Post as one of the Top 10 most beautiful beaches in the world, nicknamed Jeri, consists of blue lagoons, calm seas and huge dunes.

 

 

Etymology[edit]

The name "Jericoaquara" comes from the tupi language and means "lair of the turtles" (îurukûá means "sea turtle", kûara means "lair, hole").[1]

History[edit]

 
Sunset Dune, Jericoaquara.

In 1984, the area around Jericoacoara was declared an Environmental Protection Area. It became a national park in 2002. As a result, many restrictions for building and tourism were introduced to help preserve the area. The distance to bigger cities and limited road access also helped keeping the beach and the village isolated.

Fairly recently, Jeri was just a fishing village with little contact with modern life. Electricity was generated by diesel engines and street lights was provided only by the moon and the stars. After the selection by The Washington Postwas published, tourism grew rapidly and the beach village became a popular destination. Electricity arrived in the village in 1998 and today a hot shower and air conditioning are no longer luxuries. However, since the illumination of the streets is forbidden by local law, street lights are still provided by the moon and the stars.

Characteristics[edit]

Getting to Jeri can still be challenging. The road from Fortaleza to Jericoacoara presents beaches and rustic villages. The last 45 minutes of the journey takes place off-road, "on-sand", among dunes and along a beach. It is one of several places in Brazil from where one can see the sun sink into the ocean. This show is often viewed by many, both visitors and locals, from the tall "Sunset dune" just next to the village.

The village has streets covered in sand from the dunes by the sea. Jericoacoara is a popular spot for windsurfing and sailing.

Attractions[edit]

  • Pedra Furada: rock formation with approximately sixteen feet tall.
  • Duna do Pôr do Sol: Dune Sunset
  • Igreja Nossa Senhora da Consolação: Church Our Lady of Consolation
  • Serrote: rock formation about 95 feet tall.
  • Farol de Jericoacoara: Lighthouse Jericoacoara

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ NAVARRO, E. A. Método Moderno de Tupi Antigo. Terceira edição. São Paulo: Global, 2005. pp. 287-288

External links[edit]

Coordinates2.794°S 40.508°W

 

Lençóis Maranhenses

Lençóis Maranhenses National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Lencois Maranhenses 7.jpg
A lagoon at the National Park
Map showing the location of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
Map showing the location of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park
Location Northeastern MaranhãoBrazil
Coordinates Coordinates02°32′S 43°07′W
Area 1550 km²[1]
Designation National park
Established 1981
Governing body IBAMA

The Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (Parque Nacional dos Lençóis Maranhenses) is a national park located in Maranhão state, in northeastern Brazil, just east of the Baía de São José, between 02º19’—02º45’ S and 42º44’—43º29’ W. It is an area of low, flat, occasionally flooded land, overlaid with large, discrete sand dunes. It encompasses roughly 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi), and despite abundant rain, supports almost no vegetation. The area became a National Park on June 2, 1981.

 

 

Description[edit]

 
The Lençóis Maranhenses
 
Panorama of the Lençóis Maranhenses lagoons

Composed of large, white, sweeping dunes, at first glance Lençóis Maranhenses looks like an archetypal desert, but in fact it is not an actual one. Lying just outside the Amazon Basin, the region is subject to a regular rain season during the beginning of the year. The rains cause a peculiar phenomenon: fresh water collects in the valleys between sand dunes and is prevented from percolating down by a layer of impermeable rock which lies underneath the sand. The resulting blue, green and black "lagoons" are surrounded by the desert-like sand, and reach their fullest between July and September.

The lagoons have large numbers of fish that arrive when the lagoons are at their fullest after July, when they are interconnected to rivers such as the Rio Negro. One species of fish, the wolf fish or tiger fish (Hoplias malabaricus) stays dormant in the mud and moist areas after the majority of the water has evaporated, re-emerging during the next rainy season.[2]

Inhabitants[edit]

According to local folklore, the region was inhabited by Caeté Indians, who woke up one day to find their town covered by sand.

The national park status serves only as a means of protecting the area's ecology; consequently many people reside in the park, as is also the case with nearby Jericoacoara. The inhabitants work primarily as fishermen during the rainy season. During the dry season, many leave for neighboring regions to work small plots of land.

Visiting[edit]

Located on the northeastern coast of the state of Maranhão by the banks of the Preguiças River, the park embraces the municipalities of Humberto de CamposPrimeira CruzSanto Amaro do Maranhão and Barreirinhas, the latest serving as the main jumping off point into the protected park.

There are several regular bus/truck routes between Barreirinhas and São Luís, Brazil (Maranhão's capital), a distance of about 260 km (160 mi). There are also air taxis from São Luís to Barreirinhas. The Rio Preguiças river connects the park to Atins, a small town at the southern edge of the park. The most important access roads near the park are BR-135BR-222, MA-404, and MA-225.

The National Park is quite extensive and has no direct access roads. Because of the nature of the park's protected status, most vehicles are not permitted access. Entrance to the park is made exclusively by 4-wheel drive trucks.

In popular culture[edit]

The park was featured in the Brazilian film The House of SandKadhal Anukkal, a song from an Indian Tamil language film Enthiran starring Rajnikanth and Aishwarya Rai Bachchan was also shot here.[3][4]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ "Lençóis Maranhenses Dicas Parque dos Lençóis Maranhenses". Parquelencois.com.br. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
  2. Jump up ^ "Brazil Dunes - National Geographic Magazine, National Geographic Magazine - NGM.com". Retrieved 2014-05-31.
  3. Jump up ^ "Kollywood in search of exotic locations". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2015-04-17.
  4. Jump up ^ "Lençóis Maranhenses National Park – Brazil". Wherewasitshot.com. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2015-04-17.

External links[edit]

Manaus

Manaus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
"Manaos" redirects here. For other uses, see Manaos (disambiguation).
Manaus
Municipality
Municipality of Manaus
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left:Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Flag of Manaus
Flag
Official seal of Manaus
Seal

Nickname(s): A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics)

"The jungle city"
Location of Manaus municipality (red) in Amazonas state
Location of Manaus municipality (red) in Amazonas state
Manaus is located in Brazil
Manaus
Manaus
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 03°06′S 60°01′WCoordinates03°06′S 60°01′W
Country  Brazil
State Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas
Founded October 24, 1669
Government
 • Mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
Area
 • Municipality 11,401.06 km2(4,401.97 sq mi)
Elevation 53 m (172 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Municipality 2,020,301 (7th)
 • Density 158.06/km2 (450.29/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,316,173 (11th)
Time zone AMT (UTC-4)
Postal Code 69000-000
Area code(s) +55 (92)
Website Manaus, Amazonas

Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈnaws] or [mɐˈnawʃ]) or Manaós before 1939 or (formerly) Lugar de Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region ofBrazil. It is situated at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million it is the most populous city of Amazonas,[1] and also the most populous city of theAmazon rainforest.

The city was founded in 1693–94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio NegroPortuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.[2]

Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily by boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the nature as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main entrance to visit the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.[3]

It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest".[4] Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Pool of Manaus, the famous Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedralopera housezoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.[5]

With a population of 2 million people in 2014, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country.[6] Located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km (11 mi) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, Manaus is 1,400 km (900 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.[7]

The Solimões and Negro rivers meet in Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon [8]). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European artarchitecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region.[9]

Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities.

 

History[edit]

 
Manaus in 1865
 
Public Library of the Amazon

Early settlement for Manaus[edit]

The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by Portugal in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains.[10] It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.[10]

The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (CarmeliteJesuitFranciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city.[11] The Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the capitancy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but the governor, Lobo D'Almada, fearing Spanish invasions, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, with Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".[12]

Cabanagem[edit]

The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Indians and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[13] The entry of the High Amazonas (Manaus today, which was the cradle of the city in the Western Amazon) in Cabanagem was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the High Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population's spontaneously joining their ranks and there was a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.[14]

Rubber boom[edit]

Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world".[15] Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne."[16] The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, and using marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow fever.[17] The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, has been restored and was used in scenes of the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo (1982). After a gap of almost 90 years, it is producing live opera again.[18]

When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region to be cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia,[Note 1] Brazil and Peru lost their monopoly on the product. The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed on many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run. The city was not able to generate electricity again for years.[18]

The Brazilian government declared a duty-free zone in Manaus, which helped stimulate the economy as it attracted more tourists. Today it is a center of ecotourism and biology tours, as visitors explore the Amazon Basin.[19]

Geography[edit]

The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401.06 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 144.4 inhabitants/km². It is the neighboring city of Presidente FigueiredoCareiroIrandubaRio Preto da Eva,Itacoatiara and Novo Airão.

Climate[edit]

Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system, with more or less consistent temperatures all year round. Because the driest month, August, sees less than 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation, the city's climate falls under the tropical monsoon climate category instead of the tropical rainforest climate category.

[hide]Climate data for Manaus (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.4
(95.7)
36.1
(97)
36.2
(97.2)
35.1
(95.2)
33.8
(92.8)
33.7
(92.7)
35.1
(95.2)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
38.2
(100.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.6
(87.1)
31
(88)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
25.9
(78.6)
26
(79)
26.2
(79.2)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.3
(81.1)
27.7
(81.9)
27.7
(81.9)
27.2
(81)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
23
(73)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.26
(73.81)
Record low °C (°F) 18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
20.0
(68)
18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.3
(68.5)
20.8
(69.4)
18.3
(64.9)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 264.2
(10.402)
289.5
(11.398)
335.4
(13.205)
311.2
(12.252)
279.2
(10.992)
115.4
(4.543)
85.4
(3.362)
47.3
(1.862)
73.7
(2.902)
112.6
(4.433)
173.8
(6.843)
219.6
(8.646)
2,307.4
(90.843)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 19 18 20 18 17 11 8 6 6 9 12 16 160
Average relative humidity (%) 86 87 88 87 87 83 80 77 77 79 81 85 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.3 87.7 98.5 111.9 148.6 184.8 214.2 225 200.5 171.2 140.9 130.9 1,828.5
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

Vegetation[edit]

 
Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-richbiome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[29] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[30]

Green areas[edit]

Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus was densely developed and has few green areas in the city. The largest green areas are:

  • Park of Mindu is located in the center-south of the city, the district Park 10. The Park of Mindú, established in 1989, is one of the largest and most visited parks of the city.
  • Park of Bilhares, established in 2005, is located in the south-central region of Manaus, in the neighborhood of Plateau.
  • Area of the green hill of Aleixo, created in the 1980s, it is located in the east of the city and is one of the largest urban green areas.
  • Park Sumaúma is a state park located in the north of Manaus, in the district New Town. It is the smallest state park of the Brazilian Amazon Basin.
  • The Adolfo Ducke Forest Reserve.

Demographics[edit]

 
Amazon Opera House
 
Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra

According to the IBGE of 2012, there were 1,861,906 people residing in the city, and 2,283,906 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 149.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (388/sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% Mixed race, 31.88% White, 2.43% Black, 0.87% Asian or Amerindian.[31]

The population of Manaus is 1,861,838 inhabitants (as performed by counting IBGE in 2012), making it the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São PauloRio de JaneiroSalvadorBrasiliaFortaleza andBelo Horizonte.

The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital of the country. Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 inhabitants in 1970. Hence by 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km ².

According to a 2013 genetic study, the ancestry of the inhabitants of Manaus is 45.9% European, 37.8% Native American and 16.3% African.[32]

Religion[edit]

Although it has been developed along a predominantly Roman Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration – even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic – nevertheless there are dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city, and JudaismCandombléIslam and spiritualism, among others, are also practised.[10] The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian ChurchCalvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Episcopal Anglican Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, theUniversal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. A LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.[33]

Districts and regions[edit]

Metropolitan region[edit]

The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM), which has 2,283,906 inhabitants (counting the population IBGE in 2012) is a metropolitan area of Brazil that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.

Regions[edit]

Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).[34] The northern region of the city that has the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the New Town. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.[35] The Eastern Zone is known for having a large amount of hills.

Neighborhoods[edit]

The first neighborhood (bairro) established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began receiving human occupation, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood of Cidade Nova, which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. Cidade Nova is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.[36]

With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus, despite what most people think, is actually located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan made by the current Mayor to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk and encounter the history of the city. All these plans were made due to the World Cup and are currently being undertaken by the authorities.

Economy[edit]

 
Panoramic view of the England bridge

Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, fish, wild fruits like Açai and Capuaçu, and Brazil-nuts make up important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives have turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).

Manaus sprawls, but the center of town, the Centro where most of the hotels and attractions are located, rises above the river on a slight hill. As the largest city and a major port on the river, Manaus is commercial. Local industries include brewing, shipbuilding, soap manufacturing, the production of chemicals, computers, motorcycles and petroleum refining of oil brought in by barge and tourism.[37][38]

The mobile phone companies NokiaSiemensSagemGradiente and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.[39][40] Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus.[41] Two airlines, Rico Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds ofEduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.[42][43]

The GDP for the city was R$31,916,257,000 (2006).[44]

The per capita income for the city was R$18,902 (2006) or about US$10,661.[45]

Free Trade Zone[edit]

The Free Trade Zone of Manaus (Portuguese: Zona Franca de Manaus - ZFN) is located in the city of Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas, Northern Brazil. The initial idea, a Free Trade Port in Manaus, came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951 under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurcio Jopper, engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.

For the first ten years the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castello Branco signed whose draft accompanied the Exposition of Motives. Decree-Law No. 288 amended the provisions of Law No. 3.173/57 and redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10,000 km (6,200 mi) with an industrial centre as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.

On August 28, 1967, the Manaus Free Trade Zone Authority, SUFRAMA, was created. SUFRAMA is an independent body with its own legal status and assets and having financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUFRAMA and SUDAM.

Education[edit]

 
Educational Institute of the Amazon

As in all Brazilian cities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, education is a basic right given by the government for free to the population. Unfortunately, the public education for children is very weak and wealthier inhabitants normally enroll their children in the numerous private schools of the city.

Although there are several private universities, not only in Manaus, but throughout Brazil, Public Institutions are the most prestigious and the hardest ones to be accepted due to a lot of competition, and also, some believe they are the best regarding the level of the students and teachers, although sometimes the infrastructure can be poor.

  • Federal University of Amazonas - Universidade Federal do Amazonas;
  • University of the State of Amazonas - Universidade do Estado do Amazonas;
  • Federal Center of Technological Education - Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica;
  • Centro Universitário do Norte - UNINORTE;
  • Lutheran University of Brazil - Universidade Luterana do Brasil;
  • Centro de Educação Integrada Martha Falcão;
  • Universidade Nilton Lins;
  • Centro Universitário de Educação Superior do Amazonas - CIESA;
  • Escola Superior Batista do Amazonas;
  • Faculdade Boas Novas;
  • Faculdade Metropolitana de Manaus;
  • Universidade Paulista.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,[46] handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated their own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which boasts to be their largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other routes include North America and Europe.

The passenger terminal had been fully refurbished and expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which held 4 games in Manaus.

The airport currently operates daily international flights to MiamiUnited States, by American Airlines and TAM, to the city of Panama, by Copa Airlines and to Lisbon, Portugal, by TAP Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes AéreosTAM Airlines and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.

Manaus Air Force Base, a base of the Brazilian Air Force is at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.

Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.

Highways[edit]

There are two federal highways that intersect Manaus. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. Strictly speaking, Manaus is connected by road to the rest of Brazil, as it is possible to drive continuously from Manaus into Venezuela, and then reenter Brazil in the state of Acre by passing through the countries of ColombiaEcuador, and Peru. As such a route is essentially impractical for most motorists, the vast majority of transportation to and from Manaus is by boat or plane, except for journeys to RoraimaThe Independent noted that "there are still no roads to Manaus" from the rest of the country.[47]

The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, the access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and River Amazon, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 km (62 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and can not be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far.

The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the River Amazon, which is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new bridge spanning the Rio Negro at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and which is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.

Port[edit]

Main article: Port of Manaus

Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown. Lying on the banks of the Negro River, it is 1,450 kilometers (900 mi) inland in the heart of the Amazon rain forest. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the Port of Manaus, and other major electronics manufacturers have plants there. Major exports include Brazil nuts, chemicalspetroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products, and eco-tourism is an increasingly important source of income for the city. The recent discovery of petroleum in the area brings great promise of further wealth and commerce to the Port of Manaus.[48]

Today, the Port of Manaus is an important commercial center for ocean-going vessels travelling the Amazon. In fact, it is the main transport hub for the entire upper Amazon Basin. It imports beef from the hinterlands and exports hides and leather. Important industries in the Port of Manaus include manufacturing of soap, chemicals, electronics equipment as well as shipbuilding, brewing, and petroleum refining. With so much industry and commerce, the Port of Manaus has become a sophisticated cosmopolitan center. Located next to the Amazon rain forest, it also attracts crowds of tourists who find a variety of land and boat trips into the jungle. Wildlife is plentiful, even within the city, and it is home to the Pied Tamarin, one of Brazil's most endangered primates. Tour boats take visitors to see the point where the black waters of the Rio Negro meet the Solimões River's brown waters, flowing together without mixing for nine kilometers (5.6 miles).[49]

Getting Around[edit]

Taxis[edit]

Manaus regular taxis are white and can be stopped anywhere. They're organised into separate cooperatives, each with their own contact phone numbers. All taxis are metered, which doesn't necessarily mean it will be used, but assuming it is the rate is R$2.60 or R$3.20, depending on the time of day.

The 'especial' taxi cars are typically black and of a higher quality than the white taxis, and will charge a fixed rate for all journeys or daily hire. Most can only be booked locally, however the reputable Brazil Airport Transfers[50] has recently started providing airport transfer and general transportation services in Manaus.

Bus[edit]

The bus system in Manaus is quite extensive and there are buses and vans that will take you to most of the popular tourist destinations. There is a very simple bus website that will allow you to plan your routes if you do attempt to take the bus. If you do use the bus service be aware of those around you as crime is pervasive in Manaus.

Events and holidays[edit]

 
Tropical Hotel

The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February/early March, the Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month, each of which are extremely popular events in their own right. Staged at the famous Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. Festival Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, which has grown to become a major event in Manaus. Expect a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when literally hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.

October 24 is another date to add to your calendar, since it was on this day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party or two, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. Those in the city during November may like to check out a screening or two at the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecologyethnologyand human relationships.[51]

  • February – Amazonas Carnival – samba schools parade at the "sambódromo" in the Convention Center
  • May – Ponta Negra’s Music Festival
  • May - Amazonas Opera Festival
  • June – Amazonas Folklore Festival
  • June 29 – São Pedro Fluvial Procession
  • July - Amazonas Jazz Festival
  • September 5 - Elevation of Amazonas to the category of Brazilian Province
  • October 24 – Anniversary of Manaus
  • November - Amazonas Film Festival
  • December 31 – Ponta Negra's New Year's Eve Party

Sights and attractions[edit]

 
Amazonas Theatre

Because of Manaus' location next to the Amazon rain forest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the Pied tamarin.

Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes or simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.

About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area.[52] A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.

The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.[53] Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.

Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909 and is the oldest federal university of Brazil.

Manaus also has several Malls such as Manauara Shopping, Amazonas Shopping Center, Millennium Shopping, Shopping Ponta Negra, Studio 5 Festival Mall, Shopping Cidade Nova, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping Sao José and other small Shopping Areas. Most of these malls include large food courts and movie theaters.

The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.

Amazonas Opera House[edit]

Main article: Amazon Theatre
 
Amazonas Opera House

The Amazonas Opera House, inaugurated in 1896, has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from EuropeFrench glass and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The Theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances and more.[54]

Parks[edit]

Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport and Leisure Park

Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attctions. It also has an amphitheater with capacity for 15.000 people.

Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden

The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.[55]

Municipal Park of Mindú

It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the sauim-de-coleira, a species of monkey that only exists in the Manaus region and is threatened with extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, orchid nursery, aerial trails and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.[56]

Public swimming areas[edit]

The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.

Meeting of Waters[edit]

Main article: Meeting of Waters
 
The natural phenomenon of theconfluence of the Rio Negro's water and the Solimões River's water

This natural phenomenon is caused by the confluence of the Negro River's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi) or more, both rivers waters run side by side without mixing. The reason for this is not clear, although it is likely that the main factors are differences in the speed of the current, the volumes of water and the different densities of the two rivers. It is not thought that other differences between the two rivers (temperature and acidity) affect the mixing process significantly.[57] The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).[58]

CIGS Zoo[edit]

The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.[59]

Beaches and waterfalls[edit]

For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.

Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).

Sports[edit]

 
Internal view of arena

Football[edit]

The leader club in Manaus is the Nacional Futebol Clube, founded on January 13, 1913, and called "Leão da Vila". Participant of the serie A (first division) for several times between 1970 and 1990. Nacional is 40-times state champion, the great state champion in Amazon state, and one of the greatest state champion in Brazil, and is the best amazonian football club ranked in the CBF ranking, the official Brazilian football entity.

Other club is the Atlético Rio Negro Clube, called "Galo da Praça da Saudade" (Remembrance Square Rooster) or "Barriga Preta" club (Black Belly), also founded in 1913, but in November, which is the second largest holder of state titles, and the National Fast Club, the Tricolor of the Boulevard" or "roll", founded in the early 40 years from a dissident's National Football Club, which has won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champion and North-Northeast Championship runner-up in 1970.

There is also San Raimundo Sports Club – the Typhoon Hill (Tufão da Colina), founded on November 18, 1918, participant of the Series B (2nd division) of the Brazilian Championship until 2006, when it was demoted. It is a 7-times states champion, 3-times North Cup champion.

2014 FIFA World Cup[edit]

Manaus was chosen in 2009 to be a host city for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, after a competition to represent the North Region of Brazil with neighboring state capital Belém.

Manaus has been restructured in order to host such a big event. A new airport has been built, streets throughout the city have been repaved and new and improved sidewalks have been built. The communications infrastructure of the city has been improved with 4G networks installed by the biggest mobile phone carriers in Brazil.

The Vivaldão, previously the largest stadium in Manaus, was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian national team in their last game in the country before they headed to the World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 44,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 World Cup.[60]

The first 2014 World Cup match held in Manaus was England vs Italy on June 14. The second match was Cameroon vs Croatia on June 18, to be followed by USA vs Portugal on June 22. The last wasHonduras vs Switzerland on June 25. Manaus, known for its intense heat and humidity, was the site of the World Cup's first ever official water break on June 22 in the match between Portugal and the United States.

Brazilian jiu-jitsu[edit]

Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson PaixaoWallid IsmailSaulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre RibeiroRonaldo Souza, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). Jose Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is a black-belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his title against Urijah FaberManvel GamburyanMark Hominick and Kenny Florian.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Manaus is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up^ For an account, see The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, by Joe Jackson.

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Dados do Amazonas (Portuguese)
  2. Jump up^ About Manaus
  3. Jump up^ Manaus Guide
  4. Jump up^ Heart of The Amazon and City of the Forest
  5. Jump up^ Manaus - The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2013
  6. Jump up^ Manaus tem população estimada em 1,9 milhão de habitantes, diz IBGE(Portuguese)
  7. Jump up^ Manaus Go South America
  8. Jump up^ National Geographic
  9. Jump up^ Manaus, Brazil - Amazon River
  10. Jump up to:a b c About Manaus
  11. Jump up^ History of Manaus
  12. Jump up^ Manaus History
  13. Jump up^ Renato Cancian. "Cabanagem (1835–1840): Uma das mais sangrentas rebeliões do período regencial"Universo Online Liçao de Casa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved12 November 2007.
  14. Jump up^ Cabanagem History
  15. Jump up^ David Grann. The Lost City of Z. Random House. New York: 2009. Page 87.
  16. Jump up^ Robin Furneaux. The Amazon: the Story of a Great River. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. Page 153.
  17. Jump up^ Grann 87.
  18. Jump up to:a b Christina Lamb, "A night at the opera - and 14 days on the Amazon to get there", The Sunday Telegraph, London, 17th June 2001
  19. Jump up^ "Google Nieuws". News.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  20. Jump up^ "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  21. Jump up^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  22. Jump up^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  23. Jump up^ "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  24. Jump up^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Mayor ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  25. Jump up^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  26. Jump up^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  27. Jump up^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  28. Jump up^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  29. Jump up^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forestCambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  30. Jump up^ Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals
  31. Jump up^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil:IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  32. Jump up^ Dennis O'Rourke, University of Utah (20 September 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". Plos One. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  33. Jump up^ "Brazil Manaus Mission" (in Spanish). January 24, 2009.
  34. Jump up^ East zone of Manaus
  35. Jump up^ Center-South region of Manaus
  36. Jump up^ Amazonas City Populations, Retrieved on June 20, 2012
  37. Jump up^ "Manaus, Brazil". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 2012-04-09. Retrieved2013-03-26.
  38. Jump up^ Terry Wade of Reuters (2006-09-30). "Jets collide, 155 feared dead". Courier Mail. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  39. Jump up^ Nokia in Manaus
  40. Jump up^ Siemens
  41. Jump up^ Industries in Manaus
  42. Jump up^ Home pageRico Linhas Aéreas. Retrieved on February 9, 2010.
  43. Jump up^ "Fale Conosco." Manaus Aerotáxi. Retrieved on October 13, 2009.
  44. Jump up^ GDP (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  45. Jump up^ per capita income (PDF) (in Portuguese). Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2006.ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  46. Jump up^ Cargo movement in International Airport of Manaus
  47. Jump up^ [1]
  48. Jump up^ Port of Manaus
  49. Jump up^ Port of Manaus
  50. Jump up^ Brazil Airport Transfers
  51. Jump up^ Events in Manaus
  52. Jump up^ "Photos from Ponta Negra Beach - Manaus".
  53. Jump up^ Manaus
  54. Jump up^ Facts - Amazon Theatre
  55. Jump up^ Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden
  56. Jump up^ About Mindú Park
  57. Jump up^ Maguire, T. C., 2012. 'The Amazon Handbook' 2nd Ed., ISBN 978-0-9565741-2-1
  58. Jump up^ Natural phenomenon of confluence
  59. Jump up^ Zoo of Manaus
  60. Jump up^ Vivaldão Stadium

External links[edit]

Monte Roraima

Monte Roraima National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Monte Roraima National Park
Parque Nacional do Monte Roraima
IUCN category II (national park)
Monte Roraima, Roraima.JPG
Skyline from the top of Mount Roraima
Map showing the location of Monte Roraima National Park
Map showing the location of Monte Roraima National Park
Nearest city Boa Vista, Roraima
Coordinates 5°09′40″N 60°36′50″WCoordinates5°09′40″N 60°36′50″W
Area 116,747.80 hectares (288,490.1 acres)
Designation National park
Created 28 June 1989
Administrator Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation

Monte Roraima National Park (PortugueseParque Nacional do Monte Roraima) is a national park in the state of Roraima, Brazil. It includes mountains along the borders with Venezuela and Guyana, with a diverse environment including tropical rainforest and savanna. The park is fully contained within the Raposa Serra do Sol indigenous territory, and has the dual role of conserving the environment and supporting the constitutional rights of the indigenous people.

 

 

Location[edit]

Monte Roraima National Park is in the Uiramutã municipality of the state of Roraima.[1] It has an area of 116,747.80 hectares (288,490.1 acres).[2] The park includes part of the Cotingo River basin, where plans have been made for a hydro-electric plant. The area has high potential for mining, agriculture, ranching and ecotourism, and has resulting tension between the strong Indian population and the ranchers and settlers.[3]

The park includes part of the Pacaraima Mountains, which separate Brazil from Venezuela and Guyana. It is named after Mount Roraima, the highest of the Tepui mountains at almost 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) and one of the highest of the Pacaraima chain. The mountain has a flat top that holds a monument, the Marco da Triplice Fronteira, where the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil meet.[4]

Altitudes in the park range from 920 to 2,780 metres (3,020 to 9,120 ft) above sea level.[1] The mountains typically have large, flat table tops fringed by steep and partially denuded cliffs, which are surrounded by broad pediments cut with ravines that merge into the lower dissected reliefs of the Pacaraima range. The Serra do Sol range to the southeast has altitudes up to 2,400 metres (7,900 ft).[1]

The park contains the sources of the most northerly rivers that flow south into the Branco River basin. These include the Cotingo River, with its headwaters at the foot of Mount Roraima, the Panari River in the extreme north to the south of the Caburaí mountains, the Maú or Ireng River, which forms the border between Brazil and Guyana, and the Uailan River near the Uailan mountains.[1] The Cotingo and Maú rivers have continuous stretches of rapids and waterfalls, including the dramatic Garã Garã waterfall on the Maú.[1]

Environment[edit]

Monte Roraima National Park is in the Amazon rainforest biome.[2] Temperatures range from 2 to 18 °C (36 to 64 °F) with an average of 10 °C (50 °F). Average annual rainfall is 1,900 millimetres (75 in).[1] The region has diverse landscapes that should help conserve biodiversity, although it is lacking space.[5] It contains an 9,900 hectares (24,000 acres) area of savanna, 8.7% of the total area. This area includes forest, woodland, park and grassland.[6] The forest includes plateau and montane ecosystems. The first has small patches of dense forest with emergent trees, while the second has dense forest with closed canopy on the slopes, open on the summits and flatter areas. There are various endemic species adapted to the harsh mountain climate where temperatures may range from 4 to 25 °C (39 to 77 °F) in a 24 hour period.[1]

Administrative history[edit]

 
Plateau and mountains

Monte Roraima National Park was created by decree 97.887 of 28 June 1989, and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio).[2] It is classed as IUCN protected area category II (national park). The objectives are preservation of natural ecosystems of great ecological relevance and scenic beauty, and enabling scientific research, environmental education and interpretation, recreation in contact with nature and ecological tourism.[1] As early as 1990 the countries that participate in the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty had recommended expanding Venezuela's Canaima National Park southward to connect it with Monte Roraima National Park, with coordinated management of tourism, research and conservation.[7]

The management plan was finalised in May 2000.[1] Due to lack of money the park still existed only on paper until 2001, when the United Nations provided money to implement and manage parks in Brazil. The indigenous people became concerned when the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) began to implement the management plan.[8] This included erecting a headquarters building, and potentially removing the indigenous Ingarikó and Macushi people from the park. These people had used the area for many years for hunting, farming and religious practices. The conflict was hard to resolve, since de-gazetting the park would require a major legislative change, as would allowing the indigenous people to use the park.[9]

Due to land disputes and the movement to create the indigenous territory of Raposa Serra do Sol the management plan was not ratified by ICMBio. From 2002 IBAMA technicians worked with the Ingarikó in the area. On 15 April 2005 the area was completely assigned to Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI: National Indian Foundation) through the "dual affectation" legal device created by the federal government with recognition of the Raposa Serra do Sol Indigenous Territory.[1] Under the decree of 15 April 2005 the boundaries of the Raposa Serra do Sol Indigenous Territory were ratified and Monte Roraima National Park was made Union public property with the roles of both maintaining the constitutional rights of the Indians and conserving the environment.[10]

Notes[edit]

 

Sources[edit]

Novo Airão

Novo Airão

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Novo Airão
Municipality
Location of the municipality inside Amazonas
Location of the municipality inside Amazonas
Novo Airão is located in Brazil
Novo Airão
Novo Airão
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 2°37′15″S 60°56′38″WCoordinates2°37′15″S 60°56′38″W
Country  Brazil
Region North
State  Amazonas
Time zone BRT (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST) DST no longer used (UTC−4)

Novo Airão is a municipality located in the state of Amazonas in northern Brazil on the Rio Negro River about 180 km upstream of Manaus. Its population was 15,915 (2007) and its area is 37,771 km².[1] The town is reachable both by river and road.

 

Contents

  [hide] 

 

History[edit]

New Airão began when the Jesuits founded a settlement at the mouth of the Jaú River in 1668 named Santo Elias de Jau. The region was inhabited by Indians Waimiri-Atroari, Crichanã, Carabinari and Jauaperi. Everything indicates that the mission village of Santo Elias de Jau was the second or third nucleus of settlement organized by the Portuguese in Amazonian lands. In 1759, the village was elevated to a town with the name Airão by Joaquim de Melo Póvoas, first governor of the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro[pt]. Late