Architecture

Brasília

Brasília

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"Brasilia" redirects here. For other uses, see Brasilia (disambiguation).
Brasília
Federal capital
Região Administrativa de Brasília
Administrative Region of Brasilia
National Congress of Brazil.jpg BSB Ponte JK 08 2005 58 8x6.JPG
Esplanada dos Ministérios, Brasília DF 04 2006.jpg
Palacio Alvorada commons 133x100.jpg Brazil.Brasilia.01.jpg
Flag of Brasília
Flag
Official seal of Brasília
Seal
Nickname(s): Capital FederalBSBCapital da Esperança
Motto: "Venturis ventis"  (Latin)
"To the coming winds"
Location of Brasília in the Federal District
Location of Brasília in the Federal District
Brasília is located in Brazil
Brasília
Brasília
Location of Brasília in Brazil
Coordinates: 15°47′38″S 47°52′58″W
Country  Brazil
Region Central-West
District Bandeira do Distrito Federal (Brasil).svg Distrito Federal
Founded April 21, 1960
Area
 • Total 5,802 km2 (2,240.164 sq mi)
Elevation 1,172 m (3,845 ft)
Population (2011)(est.)[1]
 • Total 2,556,149 (4th)
 • Density 480.827/km2 (1,245.338/sq mi)
  population of the Federal District
Demonym(s) Brasiliense
GDP
 • Year 2006 estimate
 • Total R$ 161,630,000,000 (8th)
 • Per capita R$ 61,915 (1st)
HDI
 • Year 2014
 • Category 0.911 (1st)
Time zone BRT (UTC−3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2)
Postal code 70000-000
Area code(s) +55 61
Website Brasília, DF
 
Official name Brasilia
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iv
Designated 1987 (11th session)
Reference no. 445
Region Latin America and the Caribbean

Brasília (Portuguese pronunciation: [bɾaˈziljɐ]) is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region. It was founded on April 21, 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília and its metro (encompassing the whole of the Federal District) had a population of 2,556,149 in 2011, making it the 4th most populous city in Brazil.[2] Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita at R$61,915 (US$36,175).[3][4]

Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer in 1956 in order to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location. The landscape architect wasRoberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning.[5]

The centers of all three branches of the federal government of Brazil are in Brasília, including the CongressPresident, and Supreme Court. The city also hosts 124 foreign embassies.[6]Brasília International Airport connects the capital to all major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, and is the third busiest airport in Brazil.

The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. The name 'Brasília' is commonly used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche; However, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of which is Brasília proper, with a population of 214,529 in a 2012 survey; Demographic publications generally do not make this distinction and list the population of Brasília as synonymous with the population of the Federal District, considering the whole of it as a single city (as Washington, DC), as it was legally before the creation of administrative regions in 1964. For municipal purposes in Brazil, the Federal District is treated as a city-state, single municipality (Brasília), most easily seen in vehicle plates. The city was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Brasília hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.

 

History[edit]

 
The Pilot Plan
 
Construction of the Ministries Esplanade in 1959
 
Brasília in 1964

Background[edit]

From 1763 until 1960, Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro. Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. An article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stated that the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the center of the country.

The plan was originally conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazilfor a new city called Brasília, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the heavily populated southeastern corridor. The bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly.

According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that roughly fitted Brasília's location.[7] In Brasília today, many references of Bosco, who founded the Salesian order, are found throughout the city and one church parish in the city bears his name.[8]

Construction[edit]

Juscelino KubitschekPresident of Brazil from 1956 to 1961, ordered the construction of Brasília, fulfilling the promise of the Constitution and his own political campaign promise. Building Brasília was part of Juscelino's "fifty years of prosperity in five" plan. Lúcio Costa won a contest and was the main urban planner in 1957, with 5550 people competing. Oscar Niemeyer, a close friend, was the chief architect of most public buildings andRoberto Burle Marx was the landscape designer. Brasília was built in 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960, when it was officially inaugurated.

Until the 1980s, the governor of the Federal District was appointed by the Federal Government, and the laws of Brasília were issued by the Brazilian Federal Senate. With the Constitution of 1988 Brasília gained the right to elect its Governor, and a District Assembly (Câmara Legislativa) was elected to exercise legislative power.[9] The Federal District does not have a Judicial Power of its own. The Judicial Power which serves the Federal District also serves federal territories. Currently, Brazil does not have any territories, therefore, for now the courts serve only cases from the Federal District.

Geography[edit]

 
Brasília from ISS

Paranoá Lake[edit]

Paranoá Lake is a large artificial lake built to increase the amount of water available and the humidity of the region. It has the second largest marina in Brazil, and hosts wakeboarders and windsurfers. Diving can also be practiced and one of the main attractions is Vila Amaury, an old village that is submerged in the lake. This is where the first construction workers of Brasília used to live.

Climate[edit]

Brasília has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) according to the Köppen system, with two distinct seasons: the rainy season, from October to April, and a dry season, from May to September.[10] The average temperature is 20.6 °C (69.1 °F). September, at the end of the dry season, has the highest average maximum temperature, 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), has major and minor lower maximum average temperature, of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) and 12.9 °C (55.2 °F), respectively.[11][12] Average temperatures from September through March are a consistent 22 °C (72 °F).[13] With 247.4 mm (9.7 in), January is the month with the highest rainfall of the year, while June is the lowest, with only 8.7 mm (0.3 in).[14]

According to Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), the record low temperature was 1.6 °C (34.9 °F) in July 18, 1975, and the record high was 35.8 °C (96.4 °F) in October 28, 2008. The highest accumulated rainfall in 24 hours was 132.8 mm (5.2 in) on November 15, 1963.[15]

[hide]Climate data for Brasília (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.6
(90.7)
31.2
(88.2)
32.1
(89.8)
31.0
(87.8)
29.7
(85.5)
28.6
(83.5)
29.9
(85.8)
32.2
(90)
33.4
(92.1)
34.5
(94.1)
33.3
(91.9)
33.7
(92.7)
34.5
(94.1)
Average high °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
27.1
(80.8)
26.6
(79.9)
25.7
(78.3)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
27.3
(81.1)
28.3
(82.9)
27.5
(81.5)
26.6
(79.9)
26.2
(79.2)
26.6
(79.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.2
(70.2)
21.3
(70.3)
21.5
(70.7)
20.9
(69.6)
19.6
(67.3)
18.5
(65.3)
18.3
(64.9)
20.3
(68.5)
21.7
(71.1)
21.6
(70.9)
21.1
(70)
21
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
Average low °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
17.4
(63.3)
17.5
(63.5)
16.8
(62.2)
15
(59)
13.3
(55.9)
12.9
(55.2)
14.6
(58.3)
16
(61)
17.4
(63.3)
17.5
(63.5)
17.5
(63.5)
16.1
(61)
Record low °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
11.0
(51.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.7
(51.3)
3.2
(37.8)
3.3
(37.9)
1.6
(34.9)
5.0
(41)
9.0
(48.2)
10.2
(50.4)
11.4
(52.5)
13.5
(56.3)
1.6
(34.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 247.4
(9.74)
217.5
(8.563)
180.6
(7.11)
123.8
(4.874)
38.6
(1.52)
8.7
(0.343)
11.1
(0.437)
13.9
(0.547)
55.2
(2.173)
166.6
(6.559)
231.1
(9.098)
246
(9.69)
1,540.6
(60.654)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 17 14 13 9 3 1 1 1 5 13 16 18 111
Average relative humidity (%) 76 77 76 75 68 61 56 49 53 66 75 79 67.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 154.4 157.5 180.9 201.1 234.3 253.4 266.5 262.9 203.2 168.2 142.5 138.1 2,363
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[13][12][11][14][16][17][18][19][20]

Demographics[edit]

 
The Monumental Axis.

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,469,489 people residing in Brasília and its metropolitan area,[21] of which 1,239,882 were Pardo (multiracial) (48.2%), 1,084,418, White (42.2%), 198,072, Black (7.7%), 41,522, Asian (1.6%), and 6,128 Amerindian (0.2%).[22]

In 2010, Brasília was ranked the fourth most-populous city in Brazil after São PauloRio de Janeiro, and Salvador.[23] In 2010, the city had 474,871 opposite-sex couples and 1,241 same-sex couples. The population of Brasília was 52.2% female and 47.8% male.[22]

In the 1960 census there were almost 140 thousand residents in the new Federal District. By 1970 this figure had grown to 537 thousand. By 2000 the population of the Federal District had surpassed 2 million. The city of Brasília proper was planned for only about 500 thousand inhabitants, but its metropolitan area has grown past this figure.[24]

 
Brasília at night from ISS.

From the beginning, the growth of Brasília was greater than original estimates. According to the original plans, Brasília would be a city for government authorities and staff. However, during the construction period, Brazilians from all over the country migrated to Brasília, seeking public and private jobs.[25]

At the close of the 20th century, Brasília held the distinction of being the largest city in the world which had not existed at the beginning of the century.[26] Brasília has one of the highest population growth rates in Brazil, with annual growth of 2.82%, mostly due to internal migration.

Brasília's inhabitants include a foreign population of mostly embassy workers as well as large numbers of Brazilian internal migrants. Today, the city has important communities of immigrants and refugees. The city's Human Development Index was 0.936 in 2000 (developed nation level), and the city's illiteracy rate was around 4.35%.

Education[edit]

 
Institute of Biological Sciences (IB) of the University of Brasília.

The Portuguese language is the official national language and the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official curriculum. The city has six international schools:American School of Brasília, Brasília International School (BIS), Escola das Nações, Swiss International School (SIS), Lycée français François-Mitterrand (LfFM) and Maple Bear Canadian School.[27]August 2016 will see the opening of a new international school - The British School of Brasilia. Brasília has two universities, three university centers, and many private colleges.

The main tertiary educational institutions are: Universidade de Brasília – University of Brasília (UnB) (public); Universidade Católica de Brasília – Catholic University of Brasília (UCB); Centro Universitário de Brasília (UniCEUB); Centro Universitário Euroamaricano (Unieuro); Centro Universitário do Distrito Federal (UDF); Universidade Paulista (UNIP); and Instituto de Educação Superior de Brasília (IESB).

Religion[edit]

 
View of the Cathedral of Brasília.

The Cathedral of Brasília in the capital of the Federative Republic of Brazil, is an expression of the architect Oscar Niemeyer. This concrete-framed hyperboloid structure, seems with its glass roof reaching up, open, to the heavens. On 31 May 1970, the Cathedral’s structure was finished, and only the 70 m (229.66 ft) diameter of the circular area were visible. Niemeyer's project of Cathedral of Brasília is based in the hyperboloid of revolution which sections are asymmetric. The hyperboloid structure itself is a result of 16 identical assembled concrete columns. These columns, having hyperbolic section and weighing 90 t, represent two hands moving upwards to heaven. The Cathedral was dedicated on 31 May 1970.

Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 56.62% 1,455,134
Protestant 26.88% 690,982
No religion 9.20% 236,528
Spiritist 3.50% 89,836
Jewish 0.04% 1,103
Muslim 0.04% 972

Source: IBGE 2010.[28]

Politics[edit]

 
Brasília city hall
 
The National Congress building.

Brazil's bicameral National Congress consists of the Senate (the upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (the lower house). Since the 1960s, the National Congress has been located in Brasília.

As with most official buildings throughout the city, it was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the style of modern Brazilian architecture. The hemisphere to the left is the seat of the Senate and the hemisphere to the right is the seat of the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress also occupies various other surrounding buildings, some connected by tunnels.

The National Congress building is located in the middle of the Eixo Monumental, the city's main avenue. In front lies a large lawn and reflecting pool. The building faces the Praça dos Três Poderes where the Palácio do Planalto and the Supreme Federal Court are located.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities

Brasília is twinned with:[29]

Of these, AbujaCanberra, and Washington D.C. were likewise cities planned specifically to be their respective countries' seats of government.

Cityscape[edit]

 
Aerial view of downtown Brasilia (Pilot Plan) along the Monumental Axis, especially the new Mane Garrincha Stadium (left), the National Congress and the Three Powers Plaza (right). The entire residential area of North Wing (Asa Norte) is seen in the middle of the image.

At the northwestern end of the Monumental Axis are federal district and municipal buildings, while at the southeastern end, near the middle shore of Lake Paranoá, stand the executive, judicial, and legislative buildings around the Square of Three Powers, the conceptual heart of the city.[32]

 
Brazilian Flag and the National Congress in spring

These and other major structures were designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. In the Square of Three Powers, he created as a focal point the dramatic Congressional Palace, which is composed of five parts: twin administrative towers flanked by a large, white concrete dome (the meeting place of the Senate) and by an equally massive concrete bowl (the Chamber of Deputies), which is joined to the dome by an underlying, flat-roofed building.[33]

A series of low-lying annexes (largely hidden) flank both ends. Also in the square are the glass-faced Planalto Palace housing the presidential offices, and the Palace of the Supreme Court. Farther east, on a triangle of land jutting into the lake, is the Palace of the Dawn (Palácio da Alvorada; the presidential residence). Between the federal and civic buildings on the Monumental Axis is the city's cathedral, considered by many to be Niemeyer's finest achievement (see photographs of the interior). The parabolically shaped structure is characterized by its 16 gracefully curving supports, which join in a circle 115 feet (35 meters) above the floor of the nave; stretched between the supports are translucent walls of tinted glass. The nave is entered via a subterranean passage rather than conventional doorways. Other notable buildings are Buriti Palace, Itamaraty Palace, the National Theater, and several foreign embassies that creatively embody features of their national architecture. The Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx designed landmark modernist gardens for some of the principal buildings.[34]

Both low-cost and luxury housing were built by the government in the Brasília. The residential zones of the inner city are arranged into superquadras ("superblocks"): groups of apartment buildings along with a prescribed number and type of schools, retail stores, and open spaces. At the northern end of Lake Paranoá, separated from the inner city, is a peninsula with many fashionable homes, and a similar city exists on the southern lakeshore. Originally the city planners envisioned extensive public areas along the shores of the artificial lake, but during early development private clubs, hotels, and upscale residences and restaurants gained footholds around the water. Set well apart from the city are satellite cities, including GamaCeilândiaTaguatinga, Núcleo Bandeirante, Sobradinho, and Planaltina. These cities, with the exception of Gama and Sobradinho were not planned.[35]

Monumental civic scale[edit]

 
Aerial view of South Wing (Asa Sul) district.

The city has been both acclaimed and criticized for its use of modernist architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan.[36]

After a visit to Brasília, the French writer Simone de Beauvoir complained that all of its superquadras exuded "the same air of elegant monotony," and other observers have equated the city's large open lawns, plazas, and fields to wastelands. As the city has matured, some of these have gained adornments, and many have been improved by landscaping, giving some observers a sense of "humanized" spaciousness. Although not fully accomplished, the "Brasília utopia" has produced a city of relatively high quality of life, in which the citizens live in forested areas with sporting and leisure structure (thesuperquadras) flanked by small commercial areas, bookstores and cafes; the city is famous for its cuisine and efficiency of transit.[36]

Even these positive features have sparked controversy, expressed in the nickname "ilha da fantasia" ("fantasy island"), indicating the sharp contrast between the city and surrounding regions, marked by poverty and disorganization in the cities of the states of Goiás and Minas Gerais, around Brasília.[36]

Critics of Brasília's grand scale have characterized it as a modernist platonic fantasy about the future:

Nothing dates faster than people's fantasies about the future. This is what you get when perfectly decent, intelligent, and talented men start thinking in terms of space rather than place; and single rather than multiple meanings. It's what you get when you design for political aspirations rather than real human needs. You get miles of jerry-built platonic nowhere infested withVolkswagens. This, one may fervently hope, is the last experiment of its kind. The utopian buck stops here.

— Robert HughesThe Shock of the New, Episode 4: "Trouble in Utopia", (1980)

Economy[edit]

 
South Banking Sector.

The major roles of construction and of services (government, communications, banking and finance, food production, entertainment, and legal services) in Brasília's economy reflect the city's status as a governmental rather than an industrial center. Industries connected with construction, food processing, and furnishings are important, as are those associated with publishing, printing, and computer software. GDP is divided in Public Administration 54.8%, Services 28.7%, Industry 10.2%, Commerce 6.1%, Agribusiness 0.2%.[37]

Besides being the political center, Brasília is an important economic center. Brasília has the highest city gross domestic product (GDP) of 99.5 billion reais representing 3.76% of the total Brazilian GDP. The main economic activity of the federal capital results from its administrative function. Its industrial planning is studied carefully by the Government of the Federal District. Being a city registered by UNESCO, the government in Brasília has opted to encourage the development of non-polluting industries such as software, film, video, and gemology among others, with emphasis on environmental preservation and maintaining ecological balance, preserving the city property.

According to Mercer's city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, Brasília ranks 45th among the most expensive cities in the world in 2012, up from the 70th position in 2010, ranking behindSão Paulo (12th) and Rio de Janeiro (13th).

Services[edit]

 
Shopping center in the city.

(91% of local GDP, according to the IBGE):

  • Government – the public sector is by far the largest employer, accounting for around 40% of the city jobs. Government jobs include all levels, from the federal police to diplomacy, from the transportation bureau to the armed forces;
  • Communications – the telephony used to be a state monopoly, and Brasília held the HQ of Telebrás, the central state company; one of the enterprises that resulted from the privatization of the system in the 90's, Brasil Telecom, keeps it HQ in the city; the official Postal Service (Correios) HQ is located in the city as well; as it is the main place of Federal Government news, it is also notable the activities of TV stations, including the main offices of four public networks (TV Brasil/Agência BrasilTV CâmaraTV Senado and TV Justiça), the regional offices of four major private television networks (Rede GloboSBTRede Bandeirantes and Rede Record) and a main affiliate of RedeTV!;
  • Banking and finance – headquarters of the Banco do Brasil and the Caixa Econômica Federal, both controlled by the Federal Government, and the Banco de Brasília, controlled by the city local government; it is also the site of the headquarters of the Central Bank, the main government regulatory agency of the financial sector;
  • Entertainment – the shopping malls Conjunto NacionalParkShopping, Pátio Brasil Shopping, Brasília Shopping, Boulevard Shopping, Taguatinga Shopping, Terraço Shopping, Gilberto Salomão and Iguatemi Brasília.
  • Information technology (Politec, Poliedro, CTIS, among others), and legal services.

Industries[edit]

 
South Hotel Sector.

In the city include: Construction (Paulo Octavio, Via Construções, and Irmãos Gravia among others); Food processing (Perdigão, Sadia); Furniture Making; Recycling (Novo Rio, Rexam, Latasa and others); Pharmaceuticals (União Química); Graphic industries. The main agricultural products produced in the city are coffeeguavasstrawberriesorangeslemonspapayassoy beans, and mangoes. It has over 110,000 cows and it exports wood products worldwide.

The Federal District, where Brasília is located, has a GDP of R$133,4 billion (about US$64.1 billion), about the same as Belarus according to The Economist. Its share of the total Brazilian GDP is about 3.8%.[38] The Federal District has the largest GDP per capita income of Brazil US$25,062, slightly higher than Belarus.[38]

The city's planned design included specific areas for almost everything, including accommodation, Hotels Sectors North and South. New hotel facilities are being developed elsewhere, such as the hotels and tourism Sector North, located on the shores of Lake Paranoá. Brasília has a range of tourist accommodation from inns, pensions and hostels to larger international chain hotels. The city's restaurants cater to a wide range of foods from local and regional Brazilian dishes to international cuisine.

Culture[edit]

As a venue for political events, music performances and movie festivals, Brasília is a cosmopolitan city, with around 124 embassies, a wide range of restaurants and complete infrastructure ready to host any kind of event. Not surprisingly, the city stands out as an important business tourism destination, which is an important part of the local economy, with dozens of hotels spread around the federal capital. Traditional parties take place throughout the year.

In June, large festivals known as "festas juninas" are held celebrating Catholic saints such as Saint Anthony of PaduaSaint John the Baptist, and Saint Peter. On September 7, the traditional Independence Dayparade is held on the Ministries Esplanade. Throughout the year, local, national, and international events are held throughout the city. Christmas is widely celebrated, and New Year's Eve usually hosts major events.[39]

The city also hosts a varied assortment of art works from artists like Bruno Giorgi, Alfredo Ceschiatti, Athos Bulcão, Marianne Peretti, Alfredo VolpiDi Cavalcanti, Dyllan Taxman, Victor Brecheret and Burle Marx, whose works have been integrated into the city's architecture, making it a unique landscape. The cuisine in the city is very diverse. Many of the best restaurants in the city can be found in the Asa Sul district.[40]

The city is also the birthplace of Brazilian rock and place of origin of many bands like: Legião UrbanaCapital InicialAborto ElétricoPlebe Rude and Raimundos. Currently Brasília has the Rock Basement Festival who attempts to bring new bands to the national scene. The festival is held in the parking Brasilia National Stadium Mané Garrincha.

Brasília has also been the focus of modern-day literature. Published in 2008, The World In Grey: Dom Bosco's Prophecy, by author Ryan J. Lucero, tells an apocalypticle story based on the famous prophecy from the late 19th century by the Italian saint Don Bosco.[41] According to Don Bosco's prophecy:[42] "Between parallels 15 and 20, around a lake which shall be formed; A great civilization will thrive, and that will be the Promised Land." Brasília lies between the parallels 15° S and 20° S, where an artificial lake (Paranoá Lake) was formed. Don Bosco is Brasília's patron saint.

American Flagg!, the First Comics comic book series created by Howard Chaykin, portrays Brasília as a cosmopolitan world capital of culture and exotic romance. In the series, it is a top vacation and party destination. The 2015 Rede Globoseries Felizes para Sempre? was set in Brasília.[43]

Historic sites and museums[edit]

Monumental Axis and Square of the Three Powers
 
Praça dos Três Poderes (Three Powers Plaza)

At the end of the Eixo Monumental ("Monumental Axis") lies the Esplanada dos Ministérios ("Ministries Esplanade"), an open area in downtown Brasília. The rectangular lawn is surrounded by two eight-lane avenues where many government buildings, monuments and memorials are located. On Sundays and holidays, the Eixo Monumental is closed to cars so that locals may use it as a place to walk, bike, and have picnics under the trees.

Praça dos Três Poderes (Portuguese for Square of the Three Powers) is a plaza in Brasília. The name is derived from the encounter of the three federal branches around the plaza: the Executive, represented by the Palácio do Planalto (presidential office); the Legislative, represented by the National Congress (Congresso Nacional); and the Judicial branch, represented by the Supreme Federal Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal). It is a tourist attraction in Brasília, designed by Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer as a place where the three branches would meet harmoniously.

 
Panorama of the Monumental Axis
Palaces

The Palácio da Alvorada is the official residence of the President of Brazil. The palace was designed, along with the rest of the city of Brasília, by Oscar Niemeyer and inaugurated in 1958. One of the first structures built in the republic's new capital city, the "Alvorada" lies on a peninsula at the margins of Lake Paranoá. The principles of simplicity and modernity, that in the past characterized the great works of architecture, motivated Niemeyer. The viewer has an impression of looking at a glass box, softly landed on the ground with the support of thin external columns. The building has an area of 7,000 m2with three floors consisting of the basement, landing, and second floor. The auditorium, kitchen, laundry, medical center, and administration offices are at basement level. The rooms used by the presidency for official receptions are on the landing. The second floor has four suites, two apartments, and various private rooms which make up the residential part of the palace. The building also has a library, a heated Olympic-sized swimming pool, a music room, two dining rooms and various meeting rooms. A chapel and heliport are in adjacent buildings.

The Palácio do Planalto is the official workplace of the President of Brazil. It is located at the Praça dos Três Poderes in Brasília. As the seat of government, the term "Planalto" is often used as ametonym for the executive branch of government. The main working office of the President of the Republic is in the Palácio do Planalto. The President and his or her family do not live in it, rather in the official residence, the Palácio da Alvorada. Besides the President, senior advisors also have offices in the "Planalto," including the Vice-President of Brazil and the Chief of Staff. The other Ministries are along the Esplanada dos Ministérios. The architect of the Palácio do Planalto was Oscar Niemeyer, creator of most of the important buildings in Brasília. The idea was to project an image of simplicity and modernity using fine lines and waves to compose the columns and exterior structures. The Palace is four stories high, and has an area of 36,000 m2. Four other adjacent buildings are also part of the complex.

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

 
Aerial view of the airport

Brasília–Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport serves the metropolitan area with major domestic and international flights. It is the third busiestBrazilian airport based on passengers and aircraft movements.[44] Because of its strategic location it is a civil aviation hub for the rest of the country.

This makes for a large number of takeoffs and landings and it is not unusual for flights to be delayed in the holding pattern before landing. Following the airport's master plan, Infraero built a second runway, which was finished in 2006. In 2007, the airport handled 11,119,872 passengers.[44] The main building's third floor, with 12 thousand square meters, has a panoramic deck, a food court, shops, four movie theatres with total capacity of 500 people, and space for exhibitions. Brasília Airport has 136 vendor spaces. The airport is located about 11 km (6.8 mi) from the central area of Brasília, outside the metro system. The area outside the airport's main gate is lined with taxis as well as several bus line services which connect the airport to Brasília's central district. The parking lot accommodates 1,200 cars.[45] The airport is serviced by domestic and regional airlines (TAM, GOL, Azul, WebJET, Trip and Avianca), in addition to a number of international carriers. In 2012, Brasília's International Airport was won by the InfrAmerica consortium, formed by the Brazilian engineering company ENGEVIX and the Argentine Corporacion America holding company, with a 50% stake each.[46] During the 25-year concession, the airport may be expanded to up to 40 million passengers a year.[47]

In 2014, the airport received 15 new boarding bridges, totalling 28 in all. This was the main requirement made by the federal government, which transferred the operation of the terminal to the Inframerica Group after an auction. The group invested R$750 million in the project. In the same year, the number of parking spaces doubled, reaching three thousand. The airport's entrance have a new rooftop cover and a new access road. Furthermore, a VIP room was created on Terminal 1's third floor. The investments resulted an increase the capacity of Brasília's airport from approximately 15 million passengers per year to 21 million by 2014.[48] Brasília has direct flights to all states of Brazil and direct international flights to AtlantaBuenos AiresLisbonMiamiPanama City, and Paris.[49]

Road transport[edit]

 
Traffic crawls at the Ministries Esplanade.

Like most Brazilian cities, Brasilia has a good network of taxi companies. Taxis from the airport are available immediately outside the terminal, but at times there can be quite a queue of people. Although the airport is not far from the downtown area, taxi prices do seem to be higher than in other Brazilian cities. Booking in advance can be advantageous, particularly if time is limited, and local companies should be able to assist airport transfer or transport requirements.

The Juscelino Kubitschek bridge, also known as the 'President JK Bridge' or the 'JK Bridge', crosses Lake Paranoá in Brasília. It is named after Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, former president of Brazil. It was designed by architect Alexandre Chan and structural engineer Mário Vila Verde. Chan won the Gustav Lindenthal Medal[50] for this project at the 2003 International Bridge Conference inPittsburgh due to "...outstanding achievement demonstrating harmony with the environment, aesthetic merit and successful community participation".

It consists of three 60 m (200 ft) tall asymmetrical steel arches that crisscross diagonally. With a length of 1,200 m (0.75 miles), it was completed in 2002 at a cost of US$56.8 million. The bridge has a pedestrian walkway and is accessible to bicyclists and skaters.

Public transport[edit]

Metro
Main article: Brasília Metro

Metrô de Brasília is Brasília's underground metro system. The subway system has 24 stations on two lines, the Orange and Green lines, distributed along a total network of 42 km (26 mi), covering some of the metropolitan area. Both lines begin at the Central Station and run parallel until the Águas Claras Station. The Brasília metro is not comprehensive, so buses may provide better access to the city centre.

The metro leaves the Rodoviária (bus station) and goes south, avoiding most of the political and tourist areas. The main purpose of the metro is to serve cities, such as Samambaia, Taguatinga andCeilândia, as well as Guará and Águas Claras. The satellite cities served are more populated in total than the Plano Piloto itself (the census of 2000 indicated that Ceilândia had 344,039 inhabitants, Taguatinga had 243,575, whereas the Plano Piloto had approximately 400,000 inhabitants), and most residents of the satellite cities depend on public transportation.[51]

high-speed railway was planned between Brasília and Goiânia, the capital of the state of Goias, although it will probably be turned into a regional service linking these capital cities and cities in between, like Anápolis and Alexânia.[52]

Buses[edit]

 
Central Bus Station

The main bus hub in Brasília is the Central Bus Station, located in the crossing of the Eixo Monumental and the Eixão, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from the Three Powers Plaza. The original plan was to have a bus station as near as possible to every corner of Brasília. Today, the bus station is the hub of urban buses only, some running within Brasília and others connecting Brasília to the satellite cities.

In the original city plan, the interstate buses should also stop at the Central Station. Because of the growth of Brasília (and corresponding growth in the bus fleet), today the interstate buses leave from the older interstate station (called Rodoferroviária), located at the western end of the Eixo Monumental. The Central Bus Station also contains a main metro station. A new bus station was opened in July 2010. It is on Saída Sul (South Exit) near Parkshopping Mall and with its metro station, and it's also an inter-state bus station, used only to leave the Federal District.

Sports[edit]

Football (soccer)[edit]

The three most well known teams of Brasília are: Brasiliense FC from Taguatinga (Commonly called Jacaré, the "Caiman"); SE Gama (Commonly called Verdão, the "Big Green") and Brasília FC (Commonly called ColoradoThe Reds). Gama and Brasiliense won the Série B of the Brazilian Football Championship once (Gama in 1998 and Brasiliense in 2004), but they failed to be successful in the Série A. Brasília FC won the regional tournament Copa Verde in 2014.

The main stadiums are the Brasilia National Stadium Mané Garrincha (which was reinaugurated on May 18, 2013), the Serejão Stadium (home for Brasiliense) and the Bezerrão Stadium (home for Gama).

Brasília was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, for which Brazil is the host nation. Brasília hosted the opening of the Confederations Cup and hosted 7 World Cup games.[53] Brasília will also host football tournaments during the 2016 Summer Olympics to be held in Rio de Janeiro.

Other sports[edit]

Brasília is known as a departing point for the practice of unpowered air sports, sports that may be practiced with hang gliding or paragliding wings. Practitioners of such sports reveal that, because of the city's dry weather, the city offers strong thermal winds and great "cloud-streets", which is also the name for a manoeuvre quite appreciated by practitioners. In 2003, Brasília hosted the 14th Hang Gliding World Championship, one of the categories of free flying. In August 2005, the city hosted the 2nd stage of the Brazilian Hang Gliding Championship.

Brasília is the site of the Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet which hosted a non-championship round of the 1974 Formula One Grand Prix season. A IndyCar race was cancelled at the last minute in 2015.

The city is also home to Uniceub BRB, one of Brazil's best basketball clubs. Currently, NBB champion (2010, 2011 and 2012). The club hosts some of its games at the 16,000 all-seat Nilson Nelson Gymnasium.

See also[edit]

Planned capital cities

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ "Estimativa Populacional 2013" (PDF)Pesquisa Demográfica por Amostra de Domicílios 2011 (in Portuguese). Codeplan. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2015-06-06.
  2. Jump up^ IBGE: Brasília IBGE. Retrieved on 2014-09-07. (Portuguese).
  3. Jump up^ http://www.urosario.edu.co/urosario_files/9d/9d96f884-d433-45a8-947b-4e9877596f63.pdf
  4. Jump up^ Istrate, Emilia. "Global MetroMonitor | Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  5. Jump up^ "World Heritage List". Unesco. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
  6. Jump up^ "Lista do Corpo Diplomático e Organismos Internacionais". Cerimonial, Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  7. Jump up^ "São João Bosco"Don Bosco Sanctuary website (in Portuguese). Retrieved2013-03-08.
  8. Jump up^ About Brasilia Brazil (English)
  9. Jump up^ History of Brasília (English)
  10. Jump up^ A cidade das duas estações (in Brazilian Portuguese).
  11. Jump up to:a b "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  12. Jump up to:a b "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  13. Jump up to:a b "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  14. Jump up to:a b "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  15. Jump up^ Rodovia com 1,8 km e frio europeu; veja os 'extremos' de Brasília (in Brazilian Portuguese).
  16. Jump up^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Maior ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  17. Jump up^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  18. Jump up^ "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  19. Jump up^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  20. Jump up^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedAugust 19, 2014.
  21. Jump up^ 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
  22. Jump up to:a b 2010 IGBE Census (Portuguese)
  23. Jump up^ The largest Brazilian cities - 2010 IBGE Census } (Portuguese)
  24. Jump up^ "Population of Brasília". Geocities.com. January 17, 2007. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  25. Jump up^ "Immigration to Brasília". Aboutbrasilia.com. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  26. Jump up^ Brasília in the World (English)
  27. Jump up^ International schools in Brasília (English)
  28. Jump up^ "Religion in Brasília by IBGE". Sidra.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  29. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Brasilia Global Partners". Internacional.df.gov.br. Archived from the original on February 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  30. Jump up^ "Lisboa - Geminações de Cidades e Vilas" [Lisbon - Twinning of Cities and Towns]Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-08-23.
  31. Jump up^ Martin Austermuhle (2012-03-15). "D.C., Welcome Your Newest Sister City: Brasília". Dcist.com. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
  32. Jump up^ Brasília (English)
  33. Jump up^ Brasília, Brazil (UNESCO site) (English)
  34. Jump up^ Brasília (English)
  35. Jump up^ Brasília (English)
  36. Jump up to:a b c Brasília - Britannica (English)
  37. Jump up^ "GDP – Division – Federal District". Gdf.df.gov.br. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  38. Jump up to:a b "Comparing Brazilian states with countries". Economist.com. 2011-09-05. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  39. Jump up^ Brasília (English)
  40. Jump up^ "Culture in Brasília". Travelbite.co.uk. August 9, 2006. Retrieved April 17,2010.
  41. Jump up^ "Dom Bosco – Brasília". Infobrasilia.com.br. April 21, 1965. RetrievedApril 17, 2010.
  42. Jump up^ "Dom Bosco – Brasília". Flickr.com. March 24, 2009. Retrieved April 17,2010.
  43. Jump up^ Natália Castro (8 December 2014). "Maria Fernanda Cândido e Enrique Diaz gravam com Fernando Meirelles nova série da Globo, em Brasilia"O Globo. Revista da TV. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  44. Jump up to:a b Airport Statistics for 2007http://www.infraero.gov.br/upload/arquivos/movi/mov.operac.1207.pdf
  45. Jump up^ "Brasilia International Airport – facts". Aboutbrasilia.com. January 4, 2007. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
  46. Jump up^ Brazilian Airport Privatization – Second Round Concessions (English)
  47. Jump up^ Brazil Opens First Expansion at a Privately Operated Airport (English)
  48. Jump up^ Inframerica Group will invest R$ 750 million in Brasilia’s Airport (English)
  49. Jump up^ International flights - Brasília International Airport (English)
  50. Jump up^ "Bridge Awards". Eswp.com. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  51. Jump up^ "Brasília Metro". Metro.df.gov.br. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
  52. Jump up^ Fábio Amato Do G1, em Brasília (2012-06-28). "G1 - Estudo vai apontar viabilidade de trem entre Brasília, Anápolis e Goiânia - notícias em Distrito Federal". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  53. Jump up^ "Brasilia National Stadium". Government of Brazil. Retrieved 2013-03-18.

External links[edit]

Ouro Preto

Ouro Preto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
"Vila Rica" redirects here. For a municipality in the state of Mato Grosso, see Vila Rica, Mato Grosso.
Ouro Preto
Municipality
Praça Tiradentes, Ouro Preto
Museum of Betraval and Tiradentes Square
Museum of Betraval and Tiradentes Square
Flag of Ouro Preto
Flag
Official seal of Ouro Preto
Seal
Location of Ouro Preto
Ouro Preto is located in Brazil
Ouro Preto
Ouro Preto
Localization of Ouro Preto in Brazil
Coordinates: 20°23′07″S 43°30′13″WCoordinates20°23′07″S 43°30′13″W
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State  Minas Gerais
 
Official name Historic Town of Ouro Preto
Type Cultural
Criteria i, III
Designated 1980 (4th session)
Reference no. 124
State Party Brazil
Region Latin America and the Caribbean

Ouro Preto (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈoɾu ˈpɾetu]Black Gold) is a city in the state of Minas GeraisBrazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque architecture.

Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. Officially, 800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the XVIII century. Other gold circulated illegally, and still other gold remained in the colony to adorn churches and for other uses. [1]

In the 18th century, Ouro Preto became for a time the most populous city in the New World, with an estimated population of 80,000 in 1750. At that time, the population of New York was half that number, and the population of São Paulo did not reach 8,000.[2]

 

 

Geography[edit]

Important Data[edit]

Population: Data from the 2010 Census (IBGE)

  • Resident population: 70,227 (2010 Census)
  • Urban area: 56,293
  • Rural area: 9,985
  • Area of the municipality: 1,245 km²
  • Temperature: between 6 and 28 degrees Celsius. In June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius.
  • Average elevation: 1,116 m. The highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters.
  • The city has twelve districts: Amarantina, Antônio Pereira, Cachoeira do Campo, Engenheiro Correia, Glaura, Lavras Novas, Miguel Burnier, Santa Rita, Santo Antônio do Leite, Santo Antônio do Salto, São Bartolomeu and Rodrigo Silva.
  • Rivers: sources for the Velhas, Piracicaba, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil.
  • Per Capita Income: R$23,622 (US$13,544.73)
  • HDI: 0.788 (High)

Location[edit]

The city is linked by good roads to:

  • Belo Horizonte 100 km
  • Rio de Janeiro 475 km
  • São Paulo 675 km
  • Brasília 840 km

Bordering municipalities are:

  • North: Itabirito and Santa Bárbara
  • South: Ouro Branco, Catas Altas da Noruega, Piranga and Itaverava
  • East: Mariana
  • West: Belo Vale and Congonhas

Climate[edit]

Ouro Preto has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa, according to the Köppen climate classification), with warm and humid summers and mild, dry winters.

[hide]Climate data for Ouro Preto, Brazil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
28.5
(83.3)
27.1
(80.8)
25.5
(77.9)
24.5
(76.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.8
(80.2)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.3
(81.1)
26.83
(80.28)
Average low °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
16.8
(62.2)
15
(59)
12.3
(54.1)
10.2
(50.4)
9.8
(49.6)
11.1
(52)
13.8
(56.8)
16
(61)
16.8
(62.2)
17.2
(63)
14.52
(58.16)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 252
(9.92)
184.9
(7.28)
155.5
(6.122)
69.2
(2.724)
27.7
(1.091)
12.3
(0.484)
10.3
(0.406)
11.8
(0.465)
48.7
(1.917)
123.7
(4.87)
202.6
(7.976)
305.8
(12.039)
1,404.5
(55.294)
Source: Tempo Agora.[3]

History[edit]

 
Villa Rica de Ouro Preto (19th century).

Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto (meaning Black Gold) was originally called Vila Rica, or "rich village", the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule.

The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of modern urban development. New construction must keep with the city's historical aesthetic. 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination.

The tremendous wealth from gold mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. Philosophy and art flourished, and evidence of a baroque revival called the "Barroco Mineiro" is illustrated in architecture as well as by sculptors such as Aleijadinho, painters such as Mestre Athayde, composers such as Lobo de Mesquita, and poets such as Tomás António Gonzaga. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, with 100,000 inhabitants.[4]

In 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal. The leading figure, Tiradentes, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries.

In 1876, the Escola de Minas (Mines School) was created. This school established the technological foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil.

Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, when the needs of government outgrew this town in the valley. The state government was moved to the new, planned city of Belo Horizonte.

The economy[edit]

Although Ouro Preto now relies heavily on the tourism industry for part of its economy, there are important metallurgic and mining industries located in town, such as Novelis, formerly Alcan, the most important aluminum factory in the country, the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, and others. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, and mineral riches such as deposits of ironbauxitemanganesetalc and marble.

Minerals of note are: goldhematitedolomitetourmalinepyritemuscovitetopaz and imperial topaz. The imperial topaz is a stone only found in Ouro Preto.

Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, and can be found in many shops in the town centre and street fairs. Jewelry made of local precious and semi-precious gemstones (such as hematite) can also be found in abundance for sale.

The University and the Fraternities[edit]

 
Mining School - UFOP

Ouro Preto is also a university town with an intense student life. The Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (Federal University of Ouro Preto or UFOP) has approximately 10,000 students in the city. Many of them live in communal houses that are somewhat similar to fraternity houses as found in North American colleges. These communal or shared houses are called repúblicas, of which 66 belong to the university, called repúblicas federais, and 250 are privately owned (repúblicas particulares).

The repúblicas system of Ouro Preto is unique in Brazil. No other university city in the country has exactly the same characteristics of the student lodgings found there. It shares traits with the repúblicas of the Portuguese University of Coimbra, where the tradition originated. Before universities were founded in Brazil, Coimbra was where most of the rich students who could afford an overseas education went to. Each república has its own different history. There are repúblicas in which the freshmen, also known as "bixos" (misspelling of "bichos", Portuguese for "animals"), have to undergo a hazing period, called batalha (battle), before being accepted permanently as residents of the houses. The final choice of the freshmen, called escolha, has to be unanimous among the senior students of the house.[5]

The Museu Mineralógico Da Escola De Minas (Mineralogy Museum) can be of special interest to visitors. It belongs to the UFOP's School of Mining, which opened its doors on 12 October 1876. The Museum is located at the Praça Tiradentes (No. 20), in the town's historical center, and contains a rich assortment of minerals on display, including precious and semi-precious gemstones and large crystals. Security is tight, however (for example, no cameras are allowed), due to the incalculable value of the gemstones and ores on display.

Tourist attractions[edit]

 
Panoramic view.

Ouro Preto is a major tourist destination, for its well-preserved colonial appearance with old buildings and cobblestone streets.

Churches[edit]

 
Igreja de São Francisco de Assis (Church of Saint Francis of Assisi).

The city contains numerous churches, many famous for their religious art and baroque architecture. Some of the best known are:

  • Nossa Senhora do Carmo (Our Lady of Mount Carmel) - just off Tiradentes Plaza, next to the Inconfidência Museum.
  • São Francisco de Assis (St. Francis of Assisi)
  • Nossa Senhora da Conceiçao (Immaculate Conception)
  • Capela do Padre Faria (Father Faria's Chapel)
  • Nossa Senhora das Mercês (Our Lady of Mercy)

Museums[edit]

  • Museu da Inconfidência - In the former municipal palace on Tiradentes Plaza, traces the Inconfidencia independence movement.
  • Museu do Oratório (Oratory Museum) - next to the church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo, displays religious art.
  • Museu de Ciência e Téchnica (Museum of Science and Technology) - in the Ouro Preto School of Mines building on Tiradentes Plaza. The museum is noted for its collection of beautiful mineral specimens.
  • Casa Dos Contos - Historical museum.

Mines[edit]

A number of former gold mines in the city offer tours to tourists. One of the most well known is the Mina do Chico Rei, near the sanctuary of Nossa Senhora da Conceição. Another infamous mine is the Mina da passagem. In the early 19th century, Portugal gave the United Kingdom exclusive use of this mine for 100 years to pay Portugal's sovereign debts. This is the world´s largest mine open to the public.[citation needed] The municipality contains about 10% of the 31,270 hectares (77,300 acres) Serra do Gandarela National Park, created in 2014.[6]

Carnaval[edit]

The street carnaval in Ouro Preto attracts thousands of people every year. Traditional band music is played across town, and many people dress up in costumes during the holiday. There are two main types of street parade in town: the one with samba schools and the one with blocos. Carnaval usually takes place in February or March, depending on the timing of Lent. It starts on the Saturday immediately before Lent and ends the day before Ash Wednesday.

The street party is also celebrated in neighbouring towns such as Mariana.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Ouro Preto was a setting in the comedy movie Moon over Parador (1988), with actors Richard Dreyfuss and Sonia Braga. Brazil is the 6th largest mining industry.

Pictures[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ Ouro Preto Ouro Preto
  2. Jump up ^ Ouro Preto Ouro Preto
  3. Jump up ^ Climatologia — Ouro Preto
  4. Jump up ^ Gomes, Laurentino (2007). "A Colônia". 1808 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). São Paulo: Editora Planeta. p. 131. ISBN 9788576653202.
  5. Jump up ^ Portal Ouro Preto
  6. Jump up ^ PARNA de Serra do Gandarela (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-06-12

External links[edit]

Petrópolis

Petrópolis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
For other uses of "Petropolis", see Petropolis (disambiguation).
Petrópolis
Municipality
Município de Petrópolis
Imperial Museum of Brazil
Flag of Petrópolis
Flag
Official seal of Petrópolis
Seal
Nickname(s): The Imperial City
Motto: "Altiora Semper Petens"
(Latin for "Always seeking higher things")
Location of Petrópolis in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Location of Petrópolis in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Petrópolis is located in Brazil
Petrópolis
Petrópolis
Location of Petrópolis in Brazil
Coordinates: 22°30′18″S 43°10′44″WCoordinates22°30′18″S 43°10′44″W
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State Bandeira do estado do Rio de Janeiro.svg Rio de Janeiro
Government
 • Prefeito Rubens Bomtempo (PSB)
Area
 • Total 795.798 km2 (307.259 sq mi)
Elevation 838 m (2,749 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 295,917
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
Website www.petropolis.rj.gov.br

Petrópolis (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌpeˈtɾɔpuʎiʃ]), also known as The Imperial City, is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil, located 68 kilometres (42 mi) northeast of Rio de Janeiro. The town's name ("city of Peter") honors Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil, who is entombed there at the Cathedral of Saint Peter of Alcantara.[1] The city was the summer residence of the Brazilian Emperors and aristocrats in the 19th century, and was the official capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro during the First Brazilian Republic, between 1894 and 1902.[1]

 

 

Location[edit]

Nestled among the forested hills of the Serra dos Órgãos, in the valley of the Quitandinha and Piabanha rivers, Petrópolis is a popular winter holiday spot. Besides the climate and surroundings, the main attraction is the former Summer Palace of the last Brazilian Emperor, which is now the Imperial Museum, specializing in Imperial history and memorabilia.

Petrópolis is home to the National Laboratory for Scientific Computing, a research unit of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Brazilian Federal Government.

The municipality holds part of the Central Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest Mosaic of conservation units, created in 2006.[2] The 16.7 hectares (41 acres) Petrópolis Municipal Nature Park is in the historical center of the city of Petrópolis.[3] It is part of the Petrópolis Environmental Protection Area and the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve.[4] The municipality also contains the 530 hectares (1,300 acres) Pedra do Elefante Natural Monument.[5]

History[edit]

The town's origins can be traced to Bernardo Soares de Proença, who between 1722 and 1725 opened an alternative route between Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, across the Serra da Estrela. While traveling to Minas Gerais along this route, Emperor Pedro I found the region's climate pleasant, while staying at the farm of Correia, a Catholic priest. As the priest's sister and heiress refused to sell his property, the Emperor bought in 1830 the neighboring one, the Córrego Seco Farm. He had his Summer Palace built there, but never saw it finished, because he stepped down from the throne, on April 7, 1831.[6] Other Brazilian aristocrats eventually followed suit. Pedro's Palace is nowadays the Imperial Museum, one of the main attractions of the "alpine city" of Petrópolis, together with the Cathedral of Saint Peter of Alcântara, the Crystal Palace and the House of Santos-Dumont. The "Imperial City"[1]became in due time home to artists, intellectuals and celebrities, and by the twentieth century, one of the main tourist attractions in the country.

German farmers from the Rhineland were encouraged to immigrate and to settle on the Emperor's outlying lands, to help give the Palace a charming urban setting. The settlement of Petrópolis was founded on March 16, 1843.[1]It became a city in 1857. The road connecting the city to Rio de Janeiro was opened in 1910 and paved in 1928. The urban design was carried out by Major-Engineer Julius Friedrich Koeler.

On a visit to the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876, Pedro II was impressed by Alexander Graham Bell's new invention, the telephone, and had a line connecting his Summer Palace to his farm headquarters.

Even after the establishment of the Republic and the exile of the Imperial family in 1889, the city continued to play a significant role in Brazilian history. It was a frequent choice as summer residence for presidents of the republic, who lodged at the Palace of Rio Negro. In 1903 the Rio Negro Palace saw the signing of the Treaty of Petrópoliswith Bolivia, which gave Brazil the Acre territory.

During the dictatorship[edit]

There was a centre for torture, called the House of Death.[7]

Climate[edit]

Petrópolis has a subtropical highland variety of the Oceanic Climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) caused by elevation with humid summers. The rainfall is approximately 2,400 mm (94 in) per annum.

The municipality contains part of the 26,260 hectares (64,900 acres) Tinguá Biological Reserve, a strictly protected Atlantic Forest conservation unit created in 1989.[8]

The temperature is mild. The annual average is around 19 °C (66 °F). In warmer months, the average temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) and the average of the coldest month is 15 °C (59 °F). According to the National Institute of Meteorology (pt: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia), the lowest temperature recorded was −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) on August 2, 1955 and the highest temperature recorded was 36.6 °C (97.9 °F), on November 6, 2009.

[hide]Climate data for Petrópolis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
25.7
(78.3)
22.7
(72.9)
22.3
(72.1)
21.5
(70.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
26.1
(79)
24.7
(76.47)
Average low °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
17.5
(63.5)
17.1
(62.8)
15.7
(60.3)
13.1
(55.6)
11.9
(53.4)
11.3
(52.3)
12.1
(53.8)
13.3
(55.9)
15.0
(59)
15.9
(60.6)
17.0
(62.6)
14.78
(58.61)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 311
(12.24)
156
(6.14)
149
(5.87)
64
(2.52)
39
(1.54)
17
(0.67)
29
(1.14)
24
(0.94)
51
(2.01)
104
(4.09)
188
(7.4)
251
(9.88)
1,383
(54.44)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 18 13 13 7 6 3 4 4 7 9 14 17 115
Average relative humidity (%) 83 84 85 86 87 84 83 82 80 81 82 86 83.6
Source: Rio 2016 web site[9]

Tourism[edit]

 
Fountain at the Catholic University of Petrópolis

The main attractions of the city are:

Notable people[edit]

Economy[edit]

Petrópolis' economy is based on tourism, services and industry. It is the 2nd largest beer production centre in the country and the headquarters of major Brazilian brewery companies such as Grupo Petrópolis (which owns the beer brands Itaipava, Crystal, Lokal, Black Princess and Petra) and Bohemia, and also has a Brasil KirinFactory.[11][12]

Gallery[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Petrópolis is sister city of:

References[edit]

  1. Jump up to: a b c d "Emperor Street"World Digital Library. 1860–1870. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
  2. Jump up ^ Costa, Cláudia; Lamas, Ivana; Fernandes, Rosan (December 2010), Planejamento Estratégico do Mosaico Central Fluminense (PDF) (in Portuguese), Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica, p. 13, retrieved 2016-10-02
  3. Jump up ^ Parque Natural Municipal de Petrópolis (in Portuguese), Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável RJ, retrieved 2016-10-04
  4. Jump up ^ Parque Natural Municipal de Petrópolis (in Portuguese), Instituto IDEIAS, retrieved 2016-10-04
  5. Jump up ^ Unidades de Conservação da Natureza no Município de Petrópolis (in Portuguese), Município de Petrópolis, retrieved 2016-10-07
  6. Jump up ^ Home
  7. Jump up ^ Torturerte politiske fanger i Brasil, nå er han funnet drept
  8. Jump up ^ Unidade de Conservação: Reserva Biológica do Tinguá (in Portuguese), MMA: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, retrieved 2016-04-18
  9. Jump up ^ "Climatological Information for Petrópolis, Brazil". Rio 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  10. Jump up ^ "Michel de Souza"www.roh.org.uk. Royal Opera House. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  11. Jump up ^ [1]
  12. Jump up ^ [2]

External links[edit]

Salvador de Bahia

Salvador, Bahia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Salvador
Municipality
Município de Salvador
Municipality of Salvador
From the top: Farol da Barra Lighthouse, Ponta de Santo Antonio, southern end of town. Featured, the Barra Lighthouse, Buildings Facades in the Harbor at Salvador, Lacerda Elevator, The monument to the heroes of the battles of Independence of Bahia, panoramic view of the city.
From the top: Farol da Barra Lighthouse, Ponta de Santo Antonio, southern end of town. Featured, the Barra Lighthouse, Buildings Facades in the Harbor at Salvador, Lacerda Elevator, The monument to the heroes of the battles of Independence of Bahia, panoramic view of the city.
Flag of Salvador
Flag
Official seal of Salvador
Seal
Nickname(s): Roma Negra (Black Rome) andSoterópolis
Location of Salvador in the State of Bahia
Location of Salvador in the State of Bahia
Salvador is located in Brazil
Salvador
Salvador
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 12°58′29″S 38°28′36″WCoordinates12°58′29″S 38°28′36″W
Country  Brazil
Region Northeast
State Bandeira da Bahia.svg Bahia
Founded 29 March 1549
Government
 • Mayor Antônio Carlos Magalhães Neto DEM
Area
 • Municipality 693 km2 (268 sq mi)
Elevation 8 m (26 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Municipality 2,902,927 (3rd)
 • Density 4,187/km2 (10,840/sq mi)
 • Metro 3,919,864 (7th)[1][2][3]
Time zone UTC-3
Postal Code 40000-000
Area code(s) +55 71
Website www.salvador.ba.gov.br(Portuguese)

Salvador, also known as São Salvador,[4][5] Salvador de Bahia,[6] and Salvador da Bahia[7] (Brazilian Portuguese: [sawvaˈdoʁ da baˈi.ɐ]),[n 1] is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2013), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 3rd-largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas. A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town (Cidade Baixa) from its Upper Town (Cidade Alta) by some 85 meters (279 ft). The Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first elevator, has connected the two since 1873. The Pelourinho district of the upper town, still home to many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985. The city's cathedral is the see of the primate of Brazil andits Carnival celebration has been reckoned as the largest party in the world. Salvador was the first slave port in the Americas and the African influence of the slaves' descendants makes it a center of Afro-Brazilian (preto) culture. The city is noted for its cuisinemusic, and architecturePorto da Barra Beach in Barra has been named one of the best beaches in the world. Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova was the site of the city's games during the 2014 Brazilian World Cup.

Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, and continues to be a major Brazilian port. Its metropolitan area, housing 3,953,290 people(2015), is only the 8th-most populous agglomeration in Brazil but it forms the 2nd wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region.

 

History[edit]

 
All Saints Bay and Atlantic Ocean inBarra neighborhood.
Historical Affiliations

PortugalPortuguese Empire 1549–1815
Flag of New Holland.svgDutch West India Company 1624–1625
Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svgUnited Kingdom of PBA 1815–1823
 Empire of Brazil 1823–1889
BrazilRepublic of Brazil 1889–present

 
Solar Ferrão in Pelourinho.

Salvador lies on a small, roughly triangular peninsula that separates the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is the largest in Brazil and the 2nd-largest in the world.[8] It was first reached by Gaspar de Lemos in 1501, just one year after Cabral's purported discovery of Brazil.[9] During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay onAll Saints' Day (November 1) 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints.[10] The first European to settle nearby wasDiogo Álvares Correia ("Caramuru"),[11] who was shipwrecked off the end of the peninsula in 1509. He lived among the Tupinambá, marrying Guaibimpara and others. In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul (Morro de São Paulo)[12] and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood. Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546.[13] An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in shipwreck and cannibalism.[14]

The present city was established as the fortress of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos ("Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints")[15][n 2] in 1549 by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de SousaBrazil's first governor-general.[16] It is one of the oldest cities founded by Europeans in the Americas.[17] From a cliff overlooking the Bay of All Saints,[n 3] it served as Brazil's first capitaland quickly became a major port for its slave trade and sugarcane industry.[19] Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters (279 ft) high.[20] The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.

In the Catholic Church, Brazil and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were initially administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the firstCatholic diocese erected in Brazil.[21] The first parish church[22] was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help (Igreja da Nossa Senhora da Ajuda) erected by the Jesuits,[n 4] which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553.[22][n 5] Its bishop was made independent of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676;[25] he served as the primate of Congo and Angola until the elevation of Luanda on 13 January 1844 and still serves as the national primate of Brazil.

In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south. These were reunited as Brazil six years later, then redivided from 1607 to 1613. By that time, Portugal had become united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings. In 1621, King Philip III replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, and the Maranhão, which was centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil. As Spain was then prosecuting a war against the independence of the Dutch, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Brazil from them. Salvador played a strategically vital role against Dutch Brazil, but was captured and sacked by a West India Company fleet under Jacob Willekens and Piet Hein on 10 May 1624. Johan van Dorthadministered the colony before his assassination, freeing its slavesThe city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on 1 May 1625. John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful.

 
Monument dedicated to the heroes of the battles of Bahia's independence from Portugal in the Campo GrandeSquare.

In 1763, the colonial administration was removed to Rio de Janeiro and elevated to a viceroyalty. Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district,[26] but was largely outside Brazil's early modernization. The area formed a center of royal support against Pedro I's declaration of independence on September 7, 1822. Its elites initially remained loyal to the Portuguese crown[5] while rebels from Cachoeira besieged them for a year until finally receiving Portugal's surrender of the town on July 2, 1823, which is now celebrated as Bahia Independence Day.[citation needed] The local elite was similarly hesitant during Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca's coup that established the republic by in 1889.[5]

Owing to whales' use of the Bay of All Saints as a mating ground, Salvador became a large whaling port during the 19th century but the trade had already begun to fall off by the 1870s.[4]

Under the empire and republic, however, the town slowly began to industrialize. In 1873, Brazil's first elevator, the powerful hydraulic Elevador Lacerda, was constructed to connect the city's upper and lower towns.[4] Having undergone several upgrades, it continues in use.[27][28] By the First World War, it was joined by a second elevator[n 6] and Salvador was connected to four railroads: the Bahia & Alagoinhas to Joazeiro, the Bahia Central, the Nazareth Tramway, and a short line to Santo Amaro.[5] Its central districts and the major suburbs of Bomsim and Victoria were served by four streetcar lines,[4][5] which had begun to electrify.[5] It also served as a port of call for most steamship lines trading between Europe and South America.[5]

In 1985, UNESCO listed the city's Pelourinho neighborhood as a World Heritage Site.[6][29] In the 1990s, a major municipal project cleaned and restored the neighborhood in order to develop it as the cultural center and heart of the city's tourist trade. The development of the Historical Center, however, involved the forced removal of thousands of working-class residents and now necessitates local and municipal events in order to attract people to the area.[30] The relocated workers, meanwhile, have encountered significant economic hardship in their new homes on the city's periphery, separated from access to work and civic amenities.[31]

In 2007, Porto da Barra Beach in Barra was named by the British Guardian newspaper as the 3rd-best beach in the world.[32] In 2010, the city hosted the 12th UN Congress on Crime Prevention.[33] The city hosted the 2013 Confederations Cup and was one of the host cities of the 2014 Brazilian World Cup at its Arena Fonte Nova.[34] As part of its preparations for the World Cup, the city reëstablished its public transportation lines as theSalvador Metro.

Climate[edit]

Salvador features a tropical rainforest climate (KöppenAf) with no discernible dry season due to no month having an average rainfall of 60 mm. Temperatures are relatively constant throughout the course of the year.[35][36] Salvador's driest month of the year is September, when the city receives on average 10 cm (4 in) of precipitation. Salvador's wettest months are between April and June when at least 20 cm (8 in) of rain falls during each of these four months.[37]

[hide]Climate data for Salvador (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
33.6
(92.5)
32.8
(91)
31.5
(88.7)
30.4
(86.7)
29.6
(85.3)
31.3
(88.3)
29.8
(85.6)
32.2
(90)
32.1
(89.8)
32.4
(90.3)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
30
(86)
30
(86)
28.6
(83.5)
27.7
(81.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
27.2
(81)
28.1
(82.6)
28.9
(84)
29
(84)
28.2
(82.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.2
(79.2)
25.2
(77.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
25.5
(77.9)
25.9
(78.6)
25.3
(77.5)
Average low °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75)
23.7
(74.7)
22.9
(73.2)
22
(72)
21.4
(70.5)
21.2
(70.2)
21.7
(71.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.2
(73.8)
22.7
(72.9)
Record low °C (°F) 20
(68)
20.7
(69.3)
20.8
(69.4)
20.7
(69.3)
20.2
(68.4)
18.7
(65.7)
19
(66)
19
(66)
19.5
(67.1)
20
(68)
16.2
(61.2)
20
(68)
16.2
(61.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 138
(5.43)
142
(5.59)
151.6
(5.969)
309.7
(12.193)
359.9
(14.169)
243.7
(9.594)
175
(6.89)
127.4
(5.016)
102
(4.02)
114.9
(4.524)
137.1
(5.398)
142.8
(5.622)
2,144
(84.41)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 10 13 16 17 20 19 20 15 12 10 11 10 173
Average relative humidity (%) 79.4 79 79.8 82.2 83.1 82.3 81.5 80 79.6 80.7 81.5 81.1 80.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 245.6 226.4 231.1 189.7 174.3 167.2 181.2 202.6 211.4 228 213.6 224.7 2,495.8
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[35][38][39][37][40][41][36][42][43]

Demographics[edit]

 
Rio Vermelho and Horto Florestal neighborhoods.
 
View of Farol da Barra Lighthouse.
 
Centenário Avenue in Barraneighborhood.

In 2010, the city of Salvador was the third-most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[44] The city had 474,827 opposite-sex couples and 1,595 same-sex couples. The population of Salvador was 53.3% female and 46.7% male.[45]

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,480,790 people residing in the city of Salvador.[46] The census revealed the following self-identification: 1,382,543 persons identify as Pardo (Multiracial) (51.7%); 743,718 as Black (27.8%); 505,645 as White (18.9%); 35,785 as Asian (1.3%); and 7,563 as Amerindian(0.3%).[45]

Salvador's population is the result of 500 years of miscegenation. The majority of the population has African, European and Native American roots. The African ancestry of the city is from AngolaBenin,CongoEthiopiaNigeriaSenegalm and Mozambique.[47]

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral heritage of the population of Salvador was estimated to be 49.20% African, 36.30% European and 14.50% Native American.[48] The study also analyzed the genetic backgrounds of people by type of surname. Those with surnames with a religious connotation were 53.1% African in genetic ancestry and tended to be in lower economic classes. During the colonial era, it was typical practice for Portuguese priests and missionaries to baptize converted African slaves and Native Americans with surnames of religious connotations. These have been passed down to their descendants.

A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out the following ancestral composition in Salvador: 50.5% of African ancestry, 42.4% of European ancestry and 5.8% of Native American ancestry.[49][50] The researchers explained they oversampled individuals living in poor environments (page 4).[51]

Another 2015 autosomal DNA found out Salvador to be 50.8% African, 42.9% European and 6.4% Native American.[52]

And another autosomal DNA study, also in 2015, found out Salvador to be: 50.8% European, 40.5% African and 8.7% Native American.[53]

Population growth[edit]

Changing demographics of the city of Salvador

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.[54]

 

Religion[edit]

 
Former Jesuit church of Salvador(17th century), now cathedral.
 
Protestant Church in Iguatemi neighborhood.
 
Perspective of the Cross and Church of São Francisco in Anchieta Plaza, Pelourinho, created from aLaser Scan preservationist project conducted by nonprofit CyArk.

In Salvador, religion is a major contact point between Portuguese and African influences and, in the last 20 years, Brazil's version of a North American-influenced Pentecostalism.[55] Salvador was the seat of the first bishopric in colonial Brazil (established 1551), and the first bishop, Pero Fernandes Sardinha, arrived already in 1552.[56] The Jesuits, led by the Manuel da Nóbrega, also arrived in the 16th century and worked in converting the Indigenous peoples of the region to RomanCatholicism.

Many religious orders came to the city, following its foundation: FranciscansBenedictines and Carmelites. Subsequently to them are created the Third Orders, the Brotherhoods, and Fraternities, which were composed mainly of professional and social groups. The most prominent of these orders were the Terceira do Carmo Order and the de São Francisco Order, founded by white men, and the Nossa Senhora do Rosário and São Beneditino Brotherhoods, composed of black men.[57]In many churches maintained by religious men, were housed the Santíssimo Sacramento brotherhoods.

Besides these organizations, the expansion of Catholicism in the city was consolidated through social care work. Santa Casa the Misericórdia was one of the institution that did this kind of work, maintaining hospitals, shelters for the poor and the elderly, as well providing assistance to convicts and to those who would face death penalties.[57] The convents, on their part, were cultural and religious formation centers, offering seminar coursed that often were attended by the lay.

Even with the present evolution, and the growth of Protestantism and other religions in the city, the Catholic faith remains as one of its most distinctive features, drawing a lot of people to its hundreds of churches. Some aspects, like the use of Portuguese in the Masses, the simplification of the liturgy, and the adoption of "popreligious songs are key factors to the triumph of Catholicism. In the Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos Church, Masses are held in the Yorubá language, making use of African chants and typical clothes, which attract many people from the African Brazilian communities.[57]

Most enslaved Africans in Bahia were brought from Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the Yoruba-speaking nation (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese) from present-day Nigeria. The enslaved were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but their original religion Yorùbá was combined with Roman Catholicism to make the syncretic religion known as, Candomblé, which has survived in spite of prohibitions and persecutions. The enslaved Africans managed to preserve their religion by attributing the names and characteristics of their Yorùbá deities to Catholic saints with similar qualities. Still today all Candomble sessions are conducted in Yoruba, not Portuguese.

These religious entities have been syncretised with some Catholic entities. For instance, Salvador's Feast of Bonfim, celebrated in January, is dedicated to both Our Lord of Bonfim (Jesus Christ) and Oxalá. Another important feast is the Feast de Yemanja every 2 February, on the shores of the borough of Rio Vermelho in Salvador, on the day the church celebrates Our Lady of the Navigators. 8 December, Immaculate Conception Day for Catholics, is also commonly dedicated to Yemanja' with votive offerings made in the sea throughout the Brazilian coast.[citation needed]

 
Catholic Church of the Ordem Terceira de São Francisco.
Religion Percentage Number
Catholic 51.55% 1,379,252
Protestant 19.59% 524,286
No religion 17.64% 471,928
Spiritist 3.23% 86,484
Umbanda and Candomblé 1.05% 28,019
Jewish 0.04% 1,010

Source: IBGE 2010.[58]

Economy[edit]

 
Buildings in Tancredo Neves Avenue.
 
The extreme south point in Barraneighborhood.
 
Skyscrapers in Vitória neighborhood. The most expensive address of the city.

Throughout Brazilian history Salvador has played an important role. Because of its location on Brazil's northeastern coast, the city served as an important link in the Portuguese empire throughout the colonial era, maintaining close commercial ties with Portugal and Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.[59]

Salvador remained the preeminent city in Brazil until 1763 when it was replaced as the national capital by Rio de Janeiro. In the last ten years many high-rise officeand apartment buildings were constructed, sharing the same blocks with colonial-era housing or commercial buildings.[60]

With its beaches, humid tropical climate, numerous up-to-date shopping malls (The Shopping Iguatemi was the first Shopping in Northeastern Brazil) and pleasant high-class residential areas, the city has much to offer its residents.

Economically Salvador is one of Brazil's more important cities. Since its founding the city has been one of Brazil's most prominent ports and international trading centers. Boasting a large oil refinery, a petrochemical plant and other important industries, the city has made great strides in reducing its historical dependence onagriculture for its prosperity.[61]

Salvador is the second most popular tourism destination in Brazil, after Rio de Janeiro.[62] Tourism and cultural activity are important generators of employment and income, boosting the arts and the preservation of artistic and cultural heritage.

Chief among the points of interest are its famous Pelourinho (named after the colonial pillories that once stood there) district, its historic churches,[63] and its beaches. Salvador's tourism infrastructure is considered one of the most modern in World, especially in terms of lodging. The city offers accommodation to suit all tastes and standards, from youth hostels to international hotelsConstruction is one of the most important activities in the city, and many international (mainly from SpainPortugal and England)[64] and national developers are investing in the city and in the Bahian littoral zone.

Ford Motor Company has a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, assembling the Ford EcoSportFord FiestaFord Fiesta Sedan.[65] It was the first Automotive industry inNortheastern Brazil. The industry employs 800 engineers.[66]

JAC Motors will have a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, the new industry will result 3,500 direct jobs and 10,000 indirect jobs, the production of 100,000 vehicles by year.[67]

In December 2001, Monsanto Company inaugurated, at the Petrochemical Pole of Camaçari, in Metropolitan Region of Salvador, the first plant of the company designed to produce raw materials for theherbicide Roundup in South America. The investment is equivalent to US$500 millions; US$350 millions were spent in this initial phase. The Camaçari Plant, the largest unit of Monsanto outside of theUnited States, is also the only Monsanto plant manufacturing raw materials for the Roundup production line. The company started the civil works for the new plant in January 2000.[68]

Economy[69][70] GDP (in reais) GDP per capita (in reais)
2013 38,819,520,000 14,411.73

Tourism and recreation[edit]

 
Porto da Barra Beach in Barraneighborhood.
 
According to the International Council of Shopping Centers, Salvador Shopping was elected the second most modern and beautiful shopping mall in the world.[71]

The Salvador coastline is one of the longest for cities in Brazil. There are 80 km (50 mi) of beaches distributed between the High City and the Low City, from Inema, in the railroad suburb to the Praia do Flamengo, on the other side of town. While the Low City beaches are bordered by the waters of the All Saints Bay(the country's most extensive bay), the High City beaches, from Farol da Barra to Flamengo, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. The exception is Porto da Barra Beach, the only High City beach located in the All Saints Bay.

The capital's beaches range from calm inlets, ideal for swimming, sailing, diving and underwater fishing, as well as open sea inlets with strong waves, sought bysurfers. There are also beaches surrounded by reefs, forming natural pools of stone, ideal for children.

Interesting places to visit near Salvador include:

  • According to the British newspaper The Guardian, in 2007, Porto da Barra Beach was the third best in the world.[72]
  • The large island of Itaparica in the Bay of All Saints can be visited either by a car-ferry, or a smaller foot-passenger ferry, which leaves from near the Mercado Modelo near the Lacerda Elevator.
  • BA-099 Highway, or "Line of Coconut" and "Green Line" of towns and cities, with exquisite beaches, north of Salvador heading towards Sergipe state.
  • Morro de São Paulo in the Valença region across the Bay of All Saints – an island that can be reached by ferry from Salvador (2 hours), by plane, or by bus to Valença and then by 'Rapido' ('fast') speedboat or smaller ferry. Morro de São Paulo is formed by five villages of the Tinharé Island.

The city is served by many shopping malls, including Shopping Iguatemi,[73] Salvador Shopping,[74] Shopping Barra,[75] and Shopping Paralela.[76]

Salvador has four parks, green areas protected, as Jardim dos Namorados Park, Costa Azul Park, Park of the City, Park of Pituaçu.

Jardim dos Namorados is located right next to Costa Azul Park and occupies an area of 15 hectares in Pituba, where many families used to spend their vacations in the 1950s. It was inaugurated in 1969, initially as a leisure area. It underwent a complete renovation in the 1990s, with the construction of an amphitheater with room for 500 people, sports courts, playgrounds and parking for cars and tourist buses.

 
Pituaçu Park.

Park of the City is an important preservation area of the Atlantic forest. It was completely renovated in 2001, becoming a modern social, cultural and leisure place. The new park has 720 square meter of green area right in the middle of the city. Among the attractions are Praça das Flores (Flowers square), with more than five thousand ornamental plants and flowers.

Besides its environment, the park has an infrastructure for children, with a special schedule of events taking place every October.[77]

Created by state decree in 1973, Pituaçu Park occupies an area of 450 hectares and is one of the few Brazilian ecological parks located in an urban area. It is surrounded by Atlantic forest, with a good variety of plants and animals. There is also an artificial pond in the park, built in 1906 along with the Pituaçu Dam, whose purpose was to supply water to the city.[78]

There are a number of possible leisure activities, ranging from cycloboats rides on the pond, to a 38 km (24 mi) long cycloway circling the entire reserve. A museum is also located in the park. Espaço Cravo is an outdoor museum with 800 pieces created by Mario Cravo, comprising Totems, winged and three-dimensional figures, as well as drawings and paintings.

Education[edit]

 
Callitrichidae in the Universidade Católica do Salvador.
 
The first University of Medicine of the country, is located in Pelourinho. Nowadays it is a museum.

There are international schools, such as the Pan American School of Bahia.

Educational institutions[edit]

The city has several universities:

  • Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);
  • Universidade Católica do Salvador (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);
  • Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB) (Bahia State University);
  • Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS) (Salvador University);
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências (FTC) (College of Technology and Science);
  • Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA) (Federal Institute of Bahia);
  • Faculdade Ruy Barbos] (FRB) (Ruy Barbosa College);
  • Faculdade Castro Alve] (FCA) (Castro Alves College);
  • Faculdade Jorge Amado (FJA) (Jorge Amado College);
  • Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (EBMSP) (Bahian School of Medicine and Public Health);

The city has several language schools of Portuguese for foreigners and English for locals.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Top high schools of the city are Marista Academy,São Paulo Academy, Anchieta Academy, Oficina Academy, Federal Institute of Bahia (IFBA), Social Institute of Bahia (ISBA), Cândido Portinari Academy, Antônio Vieira Academy, Módulo Academy, Military College of Salvador, Sartre Coc Academy, Integral Academy, 2 de Julho Academy, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Academy, Gregor Mendel Academy, Nossa Senhora das Mercês Academy, São José Academy.

  • Based on the ranking of Enem of 2011[79]
 

Violence[edit]

Salvador is home to the fourth most homicides of any city in Brazil, and this number skyrocketed 418% from 2000 to 2010. From 1998 to 2008, the number of homicides of youths between the ages of 15 and 24 boomed 435.1%.[80] At the same time, Salvador has one of the lowest rates of suicide in the country.[81]

Culture[edit]

Salvador's historical and cultural aspects were inherited by the intermarriage of such ethnic groups as Native-Indian, African and European. This mixture can be seen in the religioncuisine, cultural manifestations, and custom of Bahia's people. African cultural practices are particularly celebrated.[82]

 
Fort of São Diogo in Barraneighborhood.

Literature[edit]

 
Perspective view of the Salvador Bahia Pelourinho's Anchieta Plaza, cut from a Laser Scan preservationist project conducted by nonprofit CyArk.

Gregório de Mattos, born in Salvador in 1636, was also educated by the Jesuits. He became the most important Baroque poet in colonial Brazil for his religious and satirical works. Father António Vieira was born in Lisbon in 1608, but was raised and educated in the Jesuit school of Salvador and died in the city in 1697. His erudite sermons have earned him the title of best writer of the Portuguese language in the Baroque era.[83]

After the Independence of Brazil (1822), Salvador continued to play an important role in Brazilian literature. Significant 19th century writers associated with the city include Romantic poet Castro Alves (1847–1871) and diplomat Ruy Barbosa (1849–1923). In the 20th century, Bahia-born Jorge Amado (1912–2001), although not born in Salvador, helped popularize the culture of the city around the world in novels such as JubiabáDona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, and Tenda dos Milagres, the settings of which are in Salvador.[84]

Cuisine[edit]

 
Acarajé is the most popular food in Salvador.

The local cuisine, spicy and based on seafood (shrimp, fish), strongly relies on typically African ingredients and techniques, and is much appreciated throughout Brazil and internationally. The most typical ingredient is azeite-de-dendê, an oil extracted from a palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) brought from West Africa to Brazil during colonial times.[85]

Using the milky coconut juice, they prepared a variety of seafood based dishes, such as Ensopados, Moquecas and Escabeche. The sugar cane bagasse was mixed with molasses and Rapadura, in the creation of coconut desserts like Cocada Branca and Preta. The remaining of the Portuguese Stew sauce was mixed with manioc flour to make a mush, which is a traditional Indian dish.[86] In the markets of Salvador, it is possible to find stands selling typical dishes of the colonial era. In the Sete Portas Market, customers eat Mocotó on Friday nights since the 1940s, when the market was inaugurated. In the restaurants of Mercado Modelo, Sarapatel, stews and several fried dishes are served regularly. In the São Joaquim, Santa Bárbara and São Miguel markets, there are stands selling typical food. They are also sold at stands located on the beaches, specially crab stews and oysters. The restaurants that sell typical dishes are located mostly along the coast and in Pelourinho. They prepare a wide variety of recipes that take palm tree oil.

Traditional dishes include caruruvatapáacarajébobó-de-camarãomoqueca baiana, and abará. Some of these dishes, like the acarajé and abará, are also used as offerings in Candomblé rituals. But Salvador is not only typical food. Other recipes created by the slaves were the Haussá Rice (rice and jerked beef cooked together), the Munguzá, used as offering to the Candomblé deity Oxalá (who is the father of all deities, according to the religion) pleased the matrons very much. So did the Bolinhos the Fubá, the Cuscuz (cornmeal) and the Mingau (porridge). According to Arany Santana, the African Ipetê (used in the rituals to the deity Oxum) became the Shrimp bobó, and the Akará (honoring the deities Xangô and Iansã) became the world-famous Acarajé. The city has restaurants specialized on international cuisine also. There are also places that serve dishes from other states of Brazil, especially from Minas Gerais and the Northeast region.

Capoeira[edit]

 
Capoeira in Salvador.

Capoeira is a unique mix of dance and martial art of Afro-Brazilian origin, combining agile dance moves with unarmed combat techniques. Capoeira in Portuguese literally means "chicken coop". The presence of capoeira in Brazil is directly connected to the importation of African slaves by the Portuguese, and Salvador is considered the home of modern capoeira branches.[87] In the first half of the 20th century, Salvador-born masters Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastinha founded capoeira schools and helped standardize and popularize the art in Brazil and the world. The practice of Capoeira wasbanned in 1892, though in 1937 it was made legal.[88] In recent years, Capoeira has become more international and accessible even in Salvador.

Museums[edit]

 
Old Customs in Pelourinho.

The artistic, cultural and social heritage of Salvador is preserved in museums. From Museu de Arte da Bahia (MAB), which is the oldest in the State, to Museu Náutico, the newest, the first capital of Brazil displays unique elements of history. Museu de Arte da Bahia has paintings, Chinese porcelain, furniture and sacred images from the 17th and 18th centuries. Museu Costa Pinto has privately owned items such as, pieces of art, crystal objects, and furniture from the 18th and 19th centuries. Museu da Cidade, where many items that help to preserve the heritage of old Salvador are kept.

Some churches and monasteries also have museums located in their premises. Examples of this are the Carmo da Misericórdia and São Bento museums. After the forts were renovated, Museu Náutico was established in the Forte de Santo Antonio da Barra (Farol da Barra) and the Museu da Comunicação in Forte São Diogo. Other important museums located in Salvador are: Museu do Cacau, Museu geológico do Estado, Museu tempostal, Solar do Ferrão, Museu de Arte Antiga e Popular Henriqueta M Catharino, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal, Museu Rodin Bahia, and Museu das Portas do Carmo.

 

Public art[edit]

The streets of Salvador are decorated with numerous murals and sculptures, many of which have been produced by the resident artist Bel Borba, a native of the city.[89]

 

Carnival[edit]

 
Salvador's Street Carnival, one of the largest in the world.
 
Carnival Circuit Carnival.
 
The bahian singer Ivete Sangalo inBarra - Ondina Circuit, on Oceanic Avenue.
Main articles: Bahian Carnival and Brazilian Carnival

The Bahian Carnival (PortugueseCarnaval) is the largest party on the planet.[90][91] Its dimensions are gigantic. For an entire week, almost 4 million people celebrate throughout 25 kilometers (16 mi) of streets, avenues, and squares. The direct organization of the party involves the participation of over 100,000 people[92] and Salvador receives an average of over 800,000 visitors. The affair is heavily policed and covered. Streets are patrolled by lines of police in single file and guarded by seated teams of five or six officers. In 2010, coverage was provided by 4,446 journalists from the local, national, and international press and broadcast to 135 countries through 65 radio stations, 75 magazines, 139 video productions, 97 newspapers (including 21 international papers), 14 tv stations, and 168 websites.[93]

The party official begins when Rei Momo ("King Momo", the King of Carnival) is handed the key to the city in the morning of the Thursday before Mardi Gras. In the Campo Grande, streets are lined with grandstands (camarotes). 60-foot-long trucks known as Trios Eléctricos carry a kick line of scantily-clad dancers along with the city's best-loved performers, such as Ivete SangaloDaniela MercuryCláudia LeitteChiclete com Banana, and Carlinhos Brown.[94] Much of the music played is axé or samba-reggae. Groups known as blocos participate, with the most famous being the blocos afros such as Malé Debalé, Olodum, and Filhos de Gandhi.

The parades are organized into separate circuits. The Osmar Circuit, the oldest, goes from Campo Grande to Castro Alves Square. The Downtown Circuit runs through downtown and Pelourinho. The Dodô Circuit goes from Farol da Barra to Ondina along the coast. Since the Osmar Circuit is the oldest, it is where the event's most traditional groups parade. In Dodô, where the artist box seats are located, the party becomes lively toward the end of the afternoon and continues until morning.

Music[edit]

Black Bahia Funk Balls play more American music—including English music—than their counterparts in Rio, while Rio's music is considered inferior and less less played. The local dancehalls which host the balls are also distinct.[95]

Libraries[edit]

 
Royal Portuguese Reading Cabinet.

The first books that arrived in Salvador, were brought by the Jesuits, who came with Tomé de Souza.[96] The first libraries or bookstores that appeared were under the control of the religious missionaries and were mostly composed of books on religion.

Handcrafts[edit]

 
Internal view of Mercado Modelo.

The handcraft legacy of Bahia using only raw materials (strawleatherclaywoodseashells and beads), the most rudimentary crafts are reasonably inexpensive. Other pieces are created with the use of metals like goldsilvercopper and brass. The most sophisticated ones are ornamented with precious and semi-precious gems. The craftsmen and women generally choose religion as the main theme of their work.

They portray the images of Catholic saints and Candomble deities on their pieces. The good luck charms such as the clenched fist, the four-leaf clover, the garlic and the famous Bonfim ribbons express the city's religious syncretism. Nature is also portrayed on these pieces, reflecting the local wildlife. Music appears in the atabaque drums, the rain sticks, the water drums and the famous berimbau, along with other typical instruments.[97]

Salvador holds an international reputation as a city where musical instruments that produce unique sounds are made. These instruments are frequently used by world-famous artists in their recording sessions. The main handcrafts production in Salvador is located in Mercado Modelo, which is the biggest handcraft center in Latin America.[98]

Pieces can also be purchased at Instituto de Artesanato de Mauá and at Instituto do Patrimônio Artístico e Cultural (IPAC). These are organizations that promote typical art in Bahia.

Transportation[edit]

International Airport[edit]

Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport is located in an area of 6,900 square metres (74,271 sq ft) between sand dunes and native vegetation. The airport is located 28 km (17 mi) north of Downtown Salvador and the road to the airport has already become one of the city's main scenic attractions.[99]

Port[edit]

Main article: Port of Salvador

With cargo volume that grows year after year following the same economic development rhythm implemented in the State, the Port of Salvador, located in theBahia de Todos os Santos, holds status as the port with the highest movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruit exporter in Brazil.

Metro[edit]

Main article: Salvador Metro
 
View of Salvador Metro.

Salvador Metro System is in operation since 2014, and its 1st phase was ready since March 2008, between Lapa and Aceso Norte Stations, and in 2009 was ready the metro stations between Estação Accesso Norte and Pirajá. In December 2014 it opened until Retiro. In 2014 the system had 12.5 km (7.8 mi) and 8 stations and have link with the bus system.

The main shareholders in Metro Salvador are the Spanish companies Construcciones y Auxiliar de FerrocarrilesDimetronic, and ICF. It is expected that Metro Salvador will invest US$150 million in rolling stock and signalling and telecommunications equipment. The contract covers the first 11.9 km (7.4 mi) line from Pirajá to Lapa, which is due to open in 2003. The project is also financed by a US$150 million World Bank loan and contributions from the federal, Bahia state, and Salvador city governments.[100]

Salvador Metro system was one of the actions of urban mobility to the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The connection of Line 2 with Line 1 of Salvador Metro contributes to connect the International Airport to Downtown Salvador and the Fonte Nova Stadium. The new Line 2 of Salvador Metro integrates the metro stations of the Rótula do Abacaxi and the beach city of Lauro de Freitas in the metropolitan area, passing through the Salvador International Airport, with the Airport metro station.[101]

 
A typical public bus with air conditioning. Many old buses are being renewed by these type.[102]

Highways[edit]

The BR-101 and BR-116 federal highways cross Bahia from north to south, connecting Salvador to the rest of the country. At the Feira de Santana junction, take the BR-324 state highway. The capital of Bahia is served by several coach companies from almost every Brazilian state. BR-242, starting at São Roque do Paraguaçu (transversal direction), is linked to BR-116, bound to the middle–west region. Among the state highways stands BA-099, which makes connection to the north coast and BA-001, which makes connection to the south of BahiaBuses provide direct service to most major Brazilian cities, including Rio de JaneiroSão Paulo, and Brasília, as well as regional destinations. In 2007, the city had 586,951 vehicles, the largest number of the Northern and Northeastern Brazil.[103] Salvador has 2,500 public buses, and 2 million people are transported every day.[104]

The bus station or Rodoviária of Salvador is located in Iguatemi district, with direct buses to larger cities in the country and to many destinations in the state of Bahia. On the second floor exixts the counters of the different bus companies, on the first floor there is a small supermarket and a 24 hours left luggage. Across the street there is a large shopping center, Iguatemi, with a food court, connected by a pedestrian crossing.[105]

Four paved highways connect the city to the national highway system. Running north from the Farol (lighthouse) de Itapoã are hundreds of miles of wonderful beaches. These beaches are accessible via the BA-099 Highway or (Line of Coconut and Green Line), a (toll) road, kept in excellent condition, running parallel to the coast, with access roads leading off to the coast itself. The road runs along dunes of snow-white sand, and the coast itself is an almost unbroken line of coconut palms. The communities along this coast range from fishing villages to Praia do Forte.

 

Neighborhoods[edit]

 
Barra neighborhood in South Zone.

Although the creation of Salvador was masterminded by the Kingdom of Portugal and its project conducted by the Portuguese engineer Luís Dias (who was responsible for the city's original design), the continuous growth of the capital through the decades was completely spontaneous.[citation needed] The walls of the city-fortress could not hold the expansion of the city, towards the Carmo and the area where now stands Castro Alves Square. At the time of its foundation, Salvador had only two squares and the first neighborhood ever built here was the Historic City Center. Pelourinho and Carmo came subsequently, created as a consequence of the growing need of space that the religious orders had. With the rapid expansion, the neighborhoods grew and many of them were clustered in the same area, so today there are not accurate records as to their exact number. For urban management purposes, the city is currently divided on 17 political-administrative zones. However, due to their very culturalrelevance and to postal conveniences, the importance of the neighborhoods of Salvador remains intact.[106]

 
Aerial view of Salvador.

Salvador is divided into a number of distinct neighborhoods, with the most well known districts being Pelourinho, Comércio, and Old Downtown, all located in West Zone. Barra, with its Farol da Barra, beaches and which is where one of the Carnival circuits begins, Barra is home of the Portuguese Hospital and Spanish Hospital, the neighborhood is located in South Zone. Vitória, a neighborhood with many high rise buildings, is located in South Zone. Campo Grande, with its Dois de Julho Square and the monument to Bahia's independence, is also located in South Zone, as is Graça, an important residential area. Ondina, with Salvador'sZoobotanical Garden and the site where the Barra-Ondina Carnival circuit ends, the neighborhood is home of the Spanish Club, is also a neighborhood in the South Zone.

ItaigaraPituba, Horto Florestal, Caminho das Árvores, Loteamento Aquárius, Brotas, Stiep, Costa Azul, Armação, Jaguaribe and Stella Maris are the wealthiest and the New Downtown neighborhoods in the East Zone and the city. Rio Vermelho, a neighborhood with a rich architectural history and numerous restaurants and bars, is located in the South Zone. Itapoã, known throughout Brazil as the home of Vinicius de Moraes and for being the setting of the song "Tarde em Itapoã", is located in East Zone.

The Northwest area of the city in along the Bay of All Saints, also known as Cidade Baixa ("Lower city"), contains the impoverished suburban neighborhoods of Periperi, Paripe, Lobato, Liberdade, Nova Esperança, and Calçada. The neighborhood of Liberdade (Liberty) has the largest proportion of Afro-Brazilians of Salvador and Brazil.[107]

Pelourinho[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
 
Old houses in the historical center of Salvador.
Type Cultural
Criteria iv, vi
Reference 309
UNESCO region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1985 (9th Session)

The Historic Center of Salvador was designated in 1985 a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.[6] The city represents a fine example the Portuguese urbanism from the middle of the 16th century with its higher administrative town and its lower commercial town, and a large portion of the city has retained the old character of its streets and colourful houses.

As the first capital of Portuguese America, Salvador cultivated slave labor and had its pillories ("pelourinhos") installed in open places like the Terreiro de Jesus and the squares know today asTomé de Sousa and Castro Alves. The pillories were a symbol of authority and justice for some and of lashings and injustice for the majority.[108] The one erected for a short time in what is now the Historical Center, and later moved to what is now the Praça da Piedade (Square of Piety), ended up lending its name to the historical and architectural complex of Pelourinho, part of the city's upper town.

Since 1992, the Pelourinho neighborhood has been subject to a nearly US$100 million "restoration" that has led to the rebuilding of hundreds of buildings' façades and the expulsion of the vast majority of the neighborhood's Afro-descendent population. This process has given rise to substantial political debate in the State of Bahia, since the Pelourinho's former residents have been for the most part excluded from the renovation's economic benefits (reaped by a few). A major restoration effort resulted in making the area a tourist attraction.[109]

Salvador's considerable wealth and status during colonial times (as capital of the colony during 250 years and which gave rise to the Pelourinho) is reflected in the magnificence of its colonialpalaceschurches and convents, most of them dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. These include:

  • Cathedral of Salvador: Former Jesuit church of the city, built in the second half of the 17th century. Fine example of Mannerist architecture and decoration.
  • Convent and Church of São Francisco: Franciscan convent and church dating from the first half of the 18th century is another fine example of the Portuguese colonial architecture. TheBaroque decoration of the church is among the finest in Brazil.
  • Church of Nosso Senhor do BonfimRococo church with Neoclassical inner decoration. The image of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim is the most venerated in the city, and the Feast of Our Lord of Good Ending (Festa de Nosso Senhor do Bonfim) in January is the most important in the city after Carnival.
  • Mercado Modelo (Model Market): In 1861, at the Cayrú Square, the Customs Building was constructed, with a rotunda (large circular room with a domed ceiling) at the back end, where ships anchored to unload their merchandise.
  • Lacerda Elevator (Elevador Lacerda): Inaugurated in 1873, this elevator was planned and built by the businessman Antônio Francisco de Lacerda, The four elevator cages connect the 72 metres (236 ft) between the Thomé de Souza Square in the upper city, and the Cayru Square in the lower city. In each run, which lasts for 22 seconds, the elevator transports 128 persons, 24 hours a day.

Sports[edit]

 
Pituaçu Stadium.

Salvador provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. The Fonte Nova Arena, also known as Estádio Octávio Mangabeira is a football stadium inaugurated on 28 January 1951 in Salvador,Bahia, with a maximum capacity of 66,080 people. The stadium has now been replaced with a new stadium named Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova with a capacity of 56,000 people. This stadium hosted matches of 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the subsequent 2014 FIFA World Cup, and will host football competition in the 2016 Summer Olympics. The stadium is owned by the Bahia government, and is the home ground of Esporte Clube Bahia. Its formal name honors Octávio Cavalcanti Mangabeira, a civil engineer, journalist, and former Bahia state governor from 1947 to 1954. The stadium is nicknamed Fonte Nova, because it is located at Ladeira das Fontes das Pedras. The stadium was in 2007 closed due to an accident, and the E.C. Bahia home matches now happen in another stadium, in Pituaçu.

Esporte Clube Bahia and Esporte Clube Vitória are Salvador's main football teams. Bahia has won 2 national titles, Brazil Trophy in 1959 and the Brazilian League in 1988, while Vitória was a runner up in the Brazilian league in 1993 and Brazil Cup in 2010.

Salvador has two large green areas for the practice of golf. Cajazeiras Golf and Country Club has an 18-hole course, instructors, caddies and equipment for rent. Itapuã Golf club, located in the area of the Sofitel Hotel, has a 9-hole course, equipment store, caddies and clubs for rent. Tennis is very popular among Salvador's elites,[110] with a great number of players and tournaments in the city's private clubs. Brasil Open, the country's most important tournament happens every year in Bahia.

 
Manoel Barradas Stadium.

During the last decades, volleyball has grown steadily in Salvador, especially after the gold medal won by Brazil in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.[110] The most important tournaments in Bahiaare the State Championship, the State League tournament and the Primavera Games, and the main teams are Associação Atlética da Bahia, Bahiano de Tênis, and Clube the Regatas Itapagipe. There are also beach volleyball events. Salvador has housed many international tournaments. Federação Bahina de Voleibol (the state league) can inform the schedule of tournaments. Bowling is practiced both by teenagers and adults in Salvador. Boliche do Aeroclube and Space Bowling are equipped with automatic lanes as well as a complete bar infrastructure.

Bahia's basketball league exists since 1993 and has 57 teams. The sport is very popular in the city of Salvador, especially among students.[111] There are several courts scattered across the city, where is possible to play for free, like the one located at Bahia Sol square, where people play.[112] There are also severalgymnasiums, in clubs like Bahiano de Tênis and Associação Atlética and the Antonio Balbino Gymnasiums (popularly known as "Balbininho"), which is an arena that can hold up to 7,000 people.

Todos os Santos Bay and Salvador's climatic conditions are ideal for competition and recreational sailing. The city is equipped with good infrastructure for practice of sailing, such as rental and sale of dock space, boat maintenance, restaurants, snack bar, convenience stores, nautical products stores, boat rental agencies, VHF and SSB communication systems, events, and total assistance to crews.[113] The large number of sailing events organized by clubs and syndicates, like oceanic races and typical boats (wooden fishing boats and canoes) races, demonstrates the sport's growing force. Currently, Salvador has a national racing schedule with dozens of events, also receiving the Mini Transat 6.50 and Les Illes du Soleil races.[113]

Rowing boat races started in the city more than a hundred years ago.[114] It was originally practiced by young men from traditional families, who spent their summer vacations there. The sport is a leisure option in Cidade Baixa (the lower part of the city). Esporte Clube Vitória and Clube São Salvador were the pioneers in the sport. Nowadays, these two entities and also Clube de Regatas Itapagipe lead the competitions that take place in the city. With the recent renovation of the Dique do Tororó area, Salvador received new lanes for the practice of the sport.

Notable residents[edit]

 
Supermodel Adriana Lima,Victoria's Secret Angel since 2000.
 
Footballer Dante, currently with FC Bayern Munich.
 
Singer and politician Gilberto Gil.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Salvador's Twin towns and sister cities are:[115]

Country City State / Region Since
United States United States Seal of Los Angeles, California.svg Los Angeles Flag of California.svg California 1962[115]
Portugal Portugal Crest of Lisboa.svg Lisbon Flag of Portugal.svg Lisboa Region 1985[115][116][117]
Portugal Portugal Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal (brasões).png Angra do Heroísmo Flag of the Azores.svg Azores 1985[115]
Portugal Portugal CSC.png Cascais Flag of Portugal.svg Lisbon Region 1985[115]
Benin Benin Flag of Benin.svg Cotonou Flag of Benin.svg Littoral Department 1987[115]
Spain Spain Escudo de Pontevedra.svg Pontevedra Flag of Galicia.svg Galicia 1992[115]
Cuba Cuba Escudo de la Habana.svg Havana Flag of Cuba.svg La Havana 1993[115]
Italy Italy Sciacca-Stemma.png Sciacca Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily 2001[115]
China China 哈尔滨市徽.jpg Harbin Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Heilongjiang 2003[115]
United States United States Seal of Miami, Florida.svg Miami Flag of Florida.svg Florida 2006[118]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up^ The European Portuguese pronunciation is [saɫvɐˈdoɾ ðɐ bɐˈi.ɐ].
  2. Jump up^ As late as the 19th century, it was also known in English as San Salvador,[4] although the general name continued to be "Bahia".[4][5]
  3. Jump up^ Its exact position remains a matter of debate.[18]
  4. Jump up^ This church was first rebuilt in stone and mortar in 1579 and then demolished in 1912 to widen a road. The present Church of Our Lady of Help is located a block away from the original site.[23]
  5. Jump up^ This basilica was later rebuilt from 1656 to 1672.[24]
  6. Jump up^ The development of the tramways and elevators, however, ended a long-running trade for porters and chairmen carrying people and goods up the steep staircase streets of the escarpment.[4]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. Jump up^ [1] Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Jump up^ "População residente, por situação do domicílio e sexo - Aglomerados urbanos - Brasil"Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved 12 June2014.
  3. Jump up^ Confira o ranking das maiores regiões metropolitanas (Portuguese)
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e f g EB (1878), p. 239.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h EB (1911).
  6. Jump up to:a b c "Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia"World Heritage List, Paris: UNESCO.
  7. Jump up^ Brickell, Margaret (July 1991). "If You Only Have a Day in Salvador da Bahia"Cruise Travel 13 (1): 25–26. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  8. Jump up^ All Saints Bay(Portuguese)
  9. Jump up^ [2]
  10. Jump up^ Bargellini & al. (1977), pp. 337-340.
  11. Jump up^ EB (1878).
  12. Jump up^ "SBSV"Climate Finder.
  13. Jump up^ Schwartz (1985), p. 19.
  14. Jump up^ Bacelar, Jonildo, "Caramuru: O patriarca da Nação Brasileira"Guia Geográfico: História da Bahia(Portuguese)
  15. Jump up^ Graham, Sandra Lauderdale (2002). Caetana Says No: Women's Stories from a Brazilian Slave Society (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 3.ISBN 0-521-89353-4. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  16. Jump up^ EB (1878), p. 240.
  17. Jump up^ Salvador - A Primeira Capital do Brasil(Portuguese)
  18. Jump up^ Coelho Filho (2014), pp. 90 ff.
  19. Jump up^ "13th International RIdIM Conference & 1st Brazilian Conference on Music Iconography - Salvador 2011". Ridim-br.mus.ufba.br. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
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  21. Jump up^ Julius III (25 February 1551), Super specula militantis Ecclesiae...(Latin)
  22. Jump up to:a b "A Sé de Palha [The See of Straw]"Guia Geográfico: Igrejas da Bahia.(Portuguese)
  23. Jump up^ "Antiga Igreja da Ajuda [Old Church of Our Lady of Help]"Guia Geográfico: Igrejas da Bahia(Portuguese)
  24. Jump up^ "Catedral Basílica de São Salvador [Basilica Cathedral of São Salvador]",Guia Geográfico: Igrejas da Bahia(Portuguese)
  25. Jump up^ Innocent XI (16 November 1676), Inter Pastoralis Officii Curas...(Latin)
  26. Jump up^ Recôncavo Baiano(Portuguese)
  27. Jump up^ Cidade Baixa e Alta (Portuguese)
  28. Jump up^ tudobeleza (2008-07-15). "Salvador da Bahia – First National Capital". Eyes On Brazil. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  29. Jump up^ Centro Histórico da cidade de Salvador (Portuguese)
  30. Jump up^ YWam City, archived from the original on 12 September 2011
  31. Jump up^ "Zumbi dos Palmares Monument Marker". Hmdb.org. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  32. Jump up^ Top 10 beaches of the world (English).
  33. Jump up^ The Twelfth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (English)
  34. Jump up^ Arena Fonte Nova (Portuguese)
  35. Jump up to:a b "Temperatura Média Compensada (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  36. Jump up to:a b "Umidade Relativa do Ar Média Compensada (%)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2014.
  37. Jump up to:a b "Precipitação Acumulada Mensal e Anual (mm)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  38. Jump up^ "Temperatura Máxima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2014.
  39. Jump up^ "Temperatura Mínima (°C)" (in Portuguese). Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. 1961–1990. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2014.
  40. Jump up^ "Número de Dias com Precipitação Maior ou Igual a 1 mm (dias)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  41. Jump up^ "Insolação Total (horas)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  42. Jump up^ "Temperatura Máxima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2014.
  43. Jump up^ "Temperatura Mínima Absoluta (ºC)". Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (Inmet). Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2014.
  44. Jump up^ The largest Brazilian cities - 2010 IBGE Census (in Portuguese)
  45. Jump up to:a b "2010 IGBE Census" (in Portuguese). Censo2010.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved2014-01-27.
  46. Jump up^ "2010 IGBE Census" (in Portuguese). Censo2010.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved2014-01-27.
  47. Jump up^ African ancestries in Salvador (English)
  48. Jump up^ http://web2.sbg.org.br/congress/sbg2008/pdfs2008/23959.pdf
  49. Jump up^ Genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification based on 5,871 community-dwelling Brazilians (The Epigen Initiative) 2015
  50. Jump up^ http://www.pnas.org/content/112/28/8696.full.pdf?with-ds=yes
  51. Jump up^ Genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification based on 5,871 community-dwelling Brazilians (The Epigen Initiative) page 4 2015
  52. Jump up^ Origin and dynamics of admixture in Brazilians and its effect on the pattern of deleterious mutations
  53. Jump up^ http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v23/n7/full/ejhg2014215a.html The correlation between ancestry and color in two cities of Northeast Brazil with contrasting ethnic compositions
  54. Jump up^ "Barsa Planeta Ltda". Brasil.planetasaber.com. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  55. Jump up^ "Religion Salvador" (in Portuguese). Touristlink.com.br. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  56. Jump up^ "1st bishop in Brazil". Darwin-online.org.uk. 2013-05-14. Retrieved2014-01-27.
  57. Jump up to:a b c Salvador - Religion (English)
  58. Jump up^ "Religion in Salvador by IBGE". IGBE. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
  59. Jump up^ Economy of Salvador (English)
  60. Jump up^ About Salvador Archived 4 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  61. Jump up^ "Salvador - Great Cities (U.S. Website)". Great Cities. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  62. Jump up^ "Praias de Salvador Bahia Praias do Brasil: Brasil, Praias do Rio, do Nordeste e outras praias do Brasil". Topdobrasil.com.br. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  63. Jump up^ Gerador Automático de Meta-Tags <http://buscas.com.br/meta-tags>."Historic Churches in Pelourinho". Visiteabahia.com.br. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  64. Jump up^ "Folha Online - Growth in construction has attracted many international investors". .folha.uol.com.br. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  65. Jump up^ "Car Models - Ford Bahia". Parana-online.com.br. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  66. Jump up^ Ford Motor Company in Salvador Metropolitan Area (Portuguese)
  67. Jump up^ "Jac Motors in Bahia" (in Portuguese). G1.globo.com. 2011-11-16. Retrieved2014-01-27.
  68. Jump up^ "Monsanto Company in Salvador" (in Portuguese). Pautasocial.com.br. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  69. Jump up^ Do G1, em São Paulo. "2013 GDPs" (in Portuguese). Terra.com. Retrieved2014-03-24.
  70. Jump up^ http://www.bahiaja.com.br/economia/noticia/2013/12/17/ibge-salvador-ocupa-22-lugar-no-ranking-per-capita-do-pib2011,67361,0.html#.UzCwKyC5fIU GDP per capita by city (Portuguese)
  71. Jump up^ "Salvador Shopping, o segundo mais bonito do mundo" (in Portuguese). Bahiamercantil.com.br. Retrieved 2014-01-27.
  72. Jump up^ Gavin McOwan (2007-02-16). "Top 10 beaches of the world | Travel". London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  73. Jump up^ Portuguese Wikipedia.
  74. Jump up^